Migration and Transformation of Ofloxacin by Free Chlorine in Water Distribution System
College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China
College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(4), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040817
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
This study investigated the degradation kinetics and product generation of ofloxacin (OFL) in the pipe network under different pipe materials, flow rate, pH, free chlorine concentration and temperature. The experiments done in the beaker and pipe network were compared. The results showed that the reaction rate of OFL chlorination with free chlorine increased with the increase of the free chlorine concentration in the pipe network and deionized water, and the degradation efficiency of OFL in the pipe network was higher than that in the deionized water, satisfying the second-order dynamics model. The degradation rate under different pHs was: neutral > acidic > alkaline. The influence of the flow rate is not significant while the influence of the pipe materials and temperature is obvious. The degradation rate of OFL increased with the increase of the temperature, indicating that the OFL degradation was an endothermic process. A liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS) was used to detect the chlorination intermediates, and the results showed that the piperazine ring was the main group involved in the chlorination reaction, and the main point involved in the chlorination reaction was the N4 atom on the piperazine ring. We also found that, as the reaction time increases, the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) increase and THMs mainly exist in the form of trichloromethane (TCM) while HAAs mainly exist in the form of monochloroacetic acid (MCAA).