A Review of the 21st Century Challenges in the Food-Energy-Water Security in the Middle East
AbstractDeveloping countries have experienced significant challenges in meeting their needs for food, energy, and water security. This paper presents a country-level review of the current issues associated with Food-Energy-Water (FEW) security in the Middle East. In this study, sixteen countries in the Middle East are studied, namely Iraq, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Turkey, and the Arabian Peninsula (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia (KSA), United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen). Here, we conduct a comprehensive assessment to study and evaluate the emerging drivers of FEW systems in the region. The investigated drivers include water security, extreme events, economic growth, urbanization, population growth, poverty, and political stability. The results suggest that most of the studied countries are facing FEW resource insecurity or weak planning/management strategies. Our evaluation further revealed the current status of each country with respect to each factor, and suggested that climatic and socioeconomic factors have contributed to the subsequent stress on FEW resources, specifically on the water sector. In general, and with respect to the water-energy security, it was found that energy production in the Middle East is highly constrained by water deficiency, drought, and/or economic growth. The water-food security in the region is mainly affected by drought, water scarcity, population growth, urbanization, and/or political unrest. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Hameed, M.; Moradkhani, H.; Ahmadalipour, A.; Moftakhari, H.; Abbaszadeh, P.; Alipour, A. A Review of the 21st Century Challenges in the Food-Energy-Water Security in the Middle East. Water 2019, 11, 682.
Hameed M, Moradkhani H, Ahmadalipour A, Moftakhari H, Abbaszadeh P, Alipour A. A Review of the 21st Century Challenges in the Food-Energy-Water Security in the Middle East. Water. 2019; 11(4):682.Chicago/Turabian Style
Hameed, Maysoun; Moradkhani, Hamid; Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moftakhari, Hamed; Abbaszadeh, Peyman; Alipour, Atieh. 2019. "A Review of the 21st Century Challenges in the Food-Energy-Water Security in the Middle East." Water 11, no. 4: 682.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.