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CO2 Flux from Volcanic Lakes in the Western Group of the Azores Archipelago (Portugal)

1
IVAR-Research Institute for Volcanology and Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-855 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
2
FCT-Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of the Azores, 9501-855 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030599
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

Here, we present the first detailed study on diffuse CO2 degassing in the lakes in the Western Group (Corvo and Flores islands) of the Azores archipelago. This research is of interest in order to determine (1) the overall CO2 emission from such lakes, as volcanic lakes are often underrepresented in the databases of these water bodies, and (2) the diffuse CO2 degassing estimates in active volcanic areas such as the Azores. The lake waters on Corvo and Flores islands are mainly of the Na–Cl type, which is likely caused by the lakes’ sea salt signatures, arising from nearby seawater spraying; however, a few samples show evidence of slight alkali earth metal and bicarbonate enrichments in the lake waters, suggesting a contribution of water–rock interaction. In this study, diffuse CO2 flux measurements were taken using the accumulation chamber method, and statistical analyses utilizing the graphical statistical approach (GSA) and sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) were conducted on the CO2 flux data, showing that the CO2 flux values measured in these lakes were relatively low (0.0–18.6 g m−2 d−1). The results seem to indicate that there is a single source of CO2 (a biogenic source), which is also supported by the waters’ δ13C isotopic signatures. Significant differences in the final CO2 output values were verified between surveys (e.g., 0.16 t d−1 in R1; 0.32 t d−1 in R2), and these differences are probably associated with the monomictic character of the lakes. CO2 emissions ranged between 0.18 t d−1 (CE1) and 0.50 t d−1 (CW1) for the Corvo lakes and between 0.03 t d−1 (P1) and 0.32 t d−1 (R2) for the seven lakes studied on Flores Island. The presence of a dense macrophyte mass in a few of the lakes appears to enhance the CO2 flux in these lakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: CO2 degassing; CO2 flux; volcanic lakes; stratification; hydrogeochemistry; Azores archipelago CO2 degassing; CO2 flux; volcanic lakes; stratification; hydrogeochemistry; Azores archipelago
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Andrade, C.; Cruz, J.V.; Viveiros, F.; Coutinho, R. CO2 Flux from Volcanic Lakes in the Western Group of the Azores Archipelago (Portugal). Water 2019, 11, 599.

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