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Cross-Linked Magnetic Chitosan/Activated Biochar for Removal of Emerging Micropollutants from Water: Optimization by the Artificial Neural Network

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima 739-8527, Japan
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Technology Mara (UiTM), Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Soil Science, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz 6165765675, Iran
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 551;
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 17 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment)
PDF [8033 KB, uploaded 17 March 2019]


One of the most important types of emerging micropollutants is the pharmaceutical micropollutant. Pharmaceutical micropollutants are usually identified in several environmental compartments, so the removal of pharmaceutical micropollutants is a global concern. This study aimed to remove diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP), and naproxen (NPX) from the aqueous solution via cross-linked magnetic chitosan/activated biochar (CMCAB). Two independent factors—pH (4–8) and a concentration of emerging micropollutants (0.5–3 mg/L)—were monitored in this study. Adsorbent dosage (g/L) and adsorption time (h) were fixed at 1.6 and 1.5, respectively, based on the results of preliminary experiments. At a pH of 6.0 and an initial micropollutant (MP) concentration of 2.5 mg/L, 2.41 mg/L (96.4%) of DCF, 2.47 mg/L (98.8%) of IBP, and 2.38 mg/L (95.2%) of NPX were removed. Optimization was done by an artificial neural network (ANN), which proved to be reasonable at optimizing emerging micropollutant elimination by CMCAB as indicated by the high R2 values and reasonable mean square errors (MSE). Adsorption isotherm studies indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were able to explain micropollutant adsorption by CMCAB. Finally, desorption tests proved that cross-linked magnetic chitosan/activated biochar might be employed for at least eight adsorption-desorption cycles. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; diclofenac; ibuprofen; magnetic biochar; naproxen chitosan; diclofenac; ibuprofen; magnetic biochar; naproxen

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Mojiri, A.; Andasht Kazeroon, R.; Gholami, A. Cross-Linked Magnetic Chitosan/Activated Biochar for Removal of Emerging Micropollutants from Water: Optimization by the Artificial Neural Network. Water 2019, 11, 551.

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