Next Article in Journal
Influence of Three Gorges Dam on Downstream Low Flow
Next Article in Special Issue
Cross-Linked Magnetic Chitosan/Activated Biochar for Removal of Emerging Micropollutants from Water: Optimization by the Artificial Neural Network
Previous Article in Journal
Flooding Related Consequences of Climate Change on Canadian Cities and Flow Regulation Infrastructure
Previous Article in Special Issue
Potential Use of Dimocarpus longan Seeds as a Flocculant in Landfill Leachate Treatment
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Inactivation and Loss of Infectivity of Enterovirus 70 by Solar Irradiation

Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division (BESE), Water Desalination and Reuse Center (WDRC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(1), 64;
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment)
PDF [2878 KB, uploaded 2 January 2019]


Enterovirus 70 (EV70) is an emerging viral pathogen that remains viable in final treated effluent. Solar irradiation is, therefore, explored as a low-cost natural disinfection strategy to mitigate potential concerns. EV70 was exposed to simulated sunlight for 24 h at a fluence rate of 28.67 J/cm2/h in three different water matrices, namely, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), treated wastewater effluent, and chlorinated effluent. In the presence of sunlight, EV70 decreased in infectivity by 1.7 log, 1.0 log, and 1.3 log in PBS, effluent, and chlorinated effluent, respectively. Irradiated EV70 was further introduced to host cell lines and was unable to infect the cell lines. In contrast, EV70 in dark microcosms replicated to titers 13.5, 3.3, and 4.2 times the initial inoculum. The reduction in EV70 infectivity was accompanied by a reduction in viral binding capacity to Vero cells. In addition, genome sequencing analysis revealed five nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in irradiated viruses after 10 days of infection in Vero cells, resulting in amino acid substitutions: Lys14Glu in the VP4 protein, Ala201Val in VP2, Gly71Ser in VP3, Glu50Gln in VP1, and Ile47Leu in 3Cpro. Overall, solar irradiation resulted in EV70 inactivation and an inhibition of viral activity in all parameters studied. View Full-Text
Keywords: enteric virus; remediation technology; water quality enteric virus; remediation technology; water quality

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jumat, M.R.; Hong, P.-Y. Inactivation and Loss of Infectivity of Enterovirus 70 by Solar Irradiation. Water 2019, 11, 64.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top