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Moisture Distribution in Sloping Black Soil Farmland during the Freeze–Thaw Period in Northeastern China

1
The Institution of Water and Environment Research, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
2
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Heilongjiang Province Hydraulic Research Institute, Harbin 150080, China
3
Institute of Water Resources for Pastoral Area, Huhhot 010021, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030536
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract

This paper outlines dynamics of near-surface hydrothermal processes and analyzes the characteristics of moisture distribution during the freeze–thaw period in a typical black soil zone around Harbin, Northeastern China, a region with a moderate depth of seasonally frozen ground and one of the most important granaries in China. At Field Site 1, we analyzed the soil temperature and soil moisture content data from November 2011 to April 2012 from soil depths of 1, 5, 10, and 15 cm in sunny slope, and from depths of 1, 5, and 10 cm in shady slope black soil farmland. At Field Site 2, soil samples were collected from a 168 m long sloping black soil field at locations 10, 50, 100, and 150 m from the bottom of the slope at different depths of 0–1 cm, 1–5 cm, and 5–10 cm at the same location. Analysis of the monitored Site 1 soil temperature and soil moisture content data showed that the soil moisture content and soil temperature fit line is consistent with a Gaussian distribution rather than a linear distribution during the freeze–thaw period. The soil moisture content and time with temperature fit line is in accordance with a Gaussian distribution during the freeze–thaw period. Site 2 soil samples were analyzed, and the soil moisture contents of the sloping black soil farmland were obtained during six different freeze–thaw periods. It was verified that the soil moisture content and time with temperature fit line is in accordance with a Gaussian distribution during the six different freeze–thaw periods. The maximum surface soil moisture content was reached during the early freeze–thaw period, which is consistent with the natural phenomenon of early spring peak soil moisture content under temperature rise and snow melt. The soil moisture contents gradually increased from the top to the bottom in sloping black soil farmland during the freeze–thaw period. Since the soil moisture content is related to soil temperature during the freeze–thaw cycle, we validated the correlation between soil temperature spatiotemporal China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model–Soil Temperature (CMADS-ST) data and monitored data. The practicality of CMADS-ST in black soil slope farmland in the seasonal frozen ground zone of the study area is very good. This research has important significance for decision-making for protecting water and soil environments in black soil slope farmland. View Full-Text
Keywords: sloping black soil farmland; soil moisture content; freeze–thaw period; soil temperature; CMADS-ST sloping black soil farmland; soil moisture content; freeze–thaw period; soil temperature; CMADS-ST
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Zhao, X.; Xu, S.; Liu, T.; Qiu, P.; Qin, G. Moisture Distribution in Sloping Black Soil Farmland during the Freeze–Thaw Period in Northeastern China. Water 2019, 11, 536.

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