Next Article in Journal
Statistical Study of Rainfall Control: The Dagum Distribution and Applicability to the Southwest of Spain
Next Article in Special Issue
The Link between Ecosystem Services and Human Wellbeing in the Implementation of the European Water Framework Directive: Assessing Four River Basins in Europe
Previous Article in Journal
Combing Random Forest and Least Square Support Vector Regression for Improving Extreme Rainfall Downscaling
Previous Article in Special Issue
Qualifying Coordination Mechanism for Cascade-Reservoir Operation with a New Game-Theoretical Methodology
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

The Threshold Effect of Environmental Regulation, FDI Agglomeration, and Water Utilization Efficiency under “Double Control Actions”—An Empirical Test Based on Yangtze River Economic Belt

1
School of Business Administration, Hohai University, Changzhou 213022, China
2
School of Humanities, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030452
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 24 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economics of Water Resources Management)
  |  
PDF [585 KB, uploaded 3 March 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

In this study, the SE-SBM model considering undesirable outputs was used to measure the water utilization efficiency of the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2006 to 2016, and the panel threshold model was used to estimate the impact of environmental regulation and foreign direct investment (FDI) agglomeration on water utilization efficiency. The results show that the water utilization efficiency presents a “U”-shaped trend as a whole, declines incrementally along the eastern, central, and western regions of the economic belt, and that the water utilization efficiency of the economic belt first converges and then diverges. In the estimation of the double threshold panel model, when the per capita GDP is lower than 2.635 or greater than 12.058 thousand dollars, the environmental regulation shows a significant positive effect. Otherwise, the environmental regulation barely shows a significant negative effect. FDI has not had a great impact on water resources utilization efficiency, and neither the “pollution aura” nor “pollution shelter” are significant. When the per capita GDP is lower than 2.184 or greater than 12.058 thousand dollars, FDI can significantly improve the water utilization efficiency through environmental regulation. Besides, the positive effects of technological innovation and foreign trade dependence are significant, and so are the negative effects of industrialization. Differentiated environmental regulation policies should be formulated; industrial upgrade should be promoted; innovation of water-saving and emission reduction should be strengthened in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. View Full-Text
Keywords: water utilization efficiency; environmental regulation; FDI agglomeration; threshold effect; Yangtze River Economic Belt water utilization efficiency; environmental regulation; FDI agglomeration; threshold effect; Yangtze River Economic Belt
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, X.; Tang, N.; He, J. The Threshold Effect of Environmental Regulation, FDI Agglomeration, and Water Utilization Efficiency under “Double Control Actions”—An Empirical Test Based on Yangtze River Economic Belt. Water 2019, 11, 452.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top