Skyscrapers are common nowadays around the world, especially in cities with limited development area. In order to pump water up to the higher level of a skyscraper, a cascade water supply system has to be installed. Currently, cascade water supply systems are mainly designed based on practical experiences or requirements of existing standards/guidelines that, in fact, are not specifically for skyscrapers. However, thorough studies on cascade water supply system designs are still limited in the literature. This study proposes mathematical models and uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the design flow rate of a typical cascade water supply system that feeds various appliances in a residential skyscraper in Hong Kong. Graphs that showed the correlations between the inflow rate in the supply pipe and water volume in the tank are obtained. While tank storage volume is confirmed, the design flow rate of the cascade water supply system can be determined from these graphs. The proposed mathematical models can also be applied to evaluate the design flow rate of cascade water supply systems in other types of skyscrapers (e.g., office, commercial building) as well as with the changes in water demand patterns in the models.
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