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Open AccessArticle

Improving the Performance of Water Distribution Networks Based on the Value Index in the System Dynamics Framework

1
Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 1417466191, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(12), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122445
Received: 18 October 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 14 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
This study proposes an algorithm for the improvement of water distribution networks (WDNs) performance using system dynamics. In the first part, the hydraulic and environmental performance of WDNs is investigated. The hydraulic performance is assessed based on the pressure of nodes and the flow velocity in pipes. Furthermore, using life cycle assessment, an environmental performance index is proposed to examine the environmental impacts of WDNs. Moreover, in order to evaluate the overall performance in regards to the costs, a value index in the system dynamics framework is proposed. Then, based on the developed framework, improvement strategies for a WDN are assessed by applying scenarios according to constraints and requirements of the network. The considered scenarios are as follows: (1) reducing per capita water demand of the WDN; (2) decreasing the average pressure in the WDN; (3) reducing the mean age of the system by its renewing; and (4) a combination of reducing the per capita water demand and average pressure in the WDN. The results indicate that the best solutions for increasing the value index in this network are: (a) to reduce the pressure of the pressure reducing valves (PRV) from 30 to 28 m; (b) to reduce the per capita water demand by the annual rate of 0.5% and 1% and decreasing the pressure of the PRV valves together. Therefore, it is shown how the developed algorithm is a purposeful approach for evaluating and improving the performance of WDNs based on the value index. View Full-Text
Keywords: water distribution networks; system dynamics; value index; life cycle assessment water distribution networks; system dynamics; value index; life cycle assessment
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Hajibabaei, M.; Nazif, S.; Sitzenfrei, R. Improving the Performance of Water Distribution Networks Based on the Value Index in the System Dynamics Framework. Water 2019, 11, 2445.

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