Next Article in Journal
The Influence of Rainfall and Land Use/Land Cover Changes on River Discharge Variability in the Mountainous Catchment of the Bagmati River
Next Article in Special Issue
Planning in Democratizing River Basins: The Case for a Co-Productive Model of Decision Making
Previous Article in Journal
Investigation of the Flux–Concentration Relation for Horizontal Flow in Soils
Previous Article in Special Issue
Freshwater Ecosystems versus Hydropower Development: Environmental Assessments and Conservation Measures in the Transboundary Amur River Basin
Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle

Participatory Modelling of Surface and Groundwater to Support Strategic Planning in the Ganga Basin in India

1
Deltares, 2600MH Delft, The Netherlands
2
Central Water Commission, New Delhi 110066, India
3
Central Ground Water Board, New Delhi 110011, India
4
World Bank, Washington, DC 20433, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(12), 2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122443
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing Water Resources in Large River Basins)
The Ganga Basin in India experiences problems related to water availability, water quality and ecological degradation because of over-abstraction of surface and groundwater, the presence of various hydraulic infrastructure, discharge of untreated sewage water, and other point and non-point source pollution. The basin is experiencing rapid socio-economic development that will increase both the demand for water and pollution load. Climate change adds to the uncertainty and future variability of water availability. To support strategic planning for the Ganga Basin by the Indian Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation and the governments of the concerned Indian states, a river basin model was developed that integrates hydrology, geohydrology, water resources management, water quality and ecology. The model was developed with the involvement of key basin stakeholders across central and state governments. No previous models of the Ganga Basin integrate all these aspects, and this is the first time that a participatory approach was applied for the development of a Ganga Basin model. The model was applied to assess the impact of future socio-economic and climate change scenarios and management strategies. The results suggest that the impact of socio-economic development will far exceed the impacts of climate change. To balance the use of surface and groundwater to support sustained economic growth and an ecologically healthy river, it is necessary to combine investments in wastewater treatment and reservoir capacity with interventions that reduce water demand, especially for irrigation, and that increase dry season river flow. An important option for further investigation is the greater use of alluvial aquifers for temporary water storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: integrated water resources management; river basin planning; Ganga River; India; participatory modelling; conjunctive water use; hydrologic modelling integrated water resources management; river basin planning; Ganga River; India; participatory modelling; conjunctive water use; hydrologic modelling
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

van der Vat, M.; Boderie, P.; Bons, K.C.A.; Hegnauer, M.; Hendriksen, G.; van Oorschot, M.; Ottow, B.; Roelofsen, F.; Sankhua, R.; Sinha, S.; Warren, A.; Young, W. Participatory Modelling of Surface and Groundwater to Support Strategic Planning in the Ganga Basin in India. Water 2019, 11, 2443.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop