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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Rain Peak Morphology on Runoff and Sediment Yield in Miyun Water Source Reserve in China

1
School of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Soil and Water Conservation Workstation in Miyun District, Beijing 101500, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(12), 2429; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122429
Received: 16 September 2019 / Revised: 8 November 2019 / Accepted: 9 November 2019 / Published: 20 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall Erosivity in Soil Erosion Processes)
The research on the impact of rainfall patterns on runoff and sediment yield is still insufficient, especially under natural rainfall conditions. We analyzed the influence of rain peak morphology on runoff and sediment yield based on the data of rainfall, runoff, and sediment in the bare runoff plot of Shixia, a small watershed in the Miyun district of Beijing, from 2007 to 2016. We took 0.4 mm min−1 as the standard of rain peak classification and the peak width, peak number, peak value, peak position and multi-peak continuity as the indexes of rain peak morphology. The results showed that: (1) Peak number, peak value, and peak width were significantly correlated with runoff and sediment yield, while peak position was irrelevant. The order of correlation between rain peak morphology indexes and runoff yield was peak width (0.71) > peak number (0.69) > peak value (0.33) > peak position (0.05). The order of correlation between rain peak morphological indexes and sediment yield was peak width (0.62) > peak value (0.36) > peak number (0.36) > peak position (−0.09). The multi-peak continuity was not correlated with runoff (0.12) and sediment yield (0.45). (2) When the number of rain peaks was greater than one in a single rainfall, the amount of runoff and sediment production increased significantly. (3) For multi-peak rainfall, 90 min was the boundary point of the rain peak interval, and the sediment yield formed by rainfall with a rain peak continuity >1/90 min−1 was significantly larger than the rainfall of ≤1/90 min−1. (4) Covariance analysis showed that the runoff caused by rainfall with a peak at the middle positions was obviously more than rainfall with a peak at the front position. However, the peak position had no significant effect on the sediment yield. (5) The peak rainfall amount of a rainfall (TPR) was a comprehensive index reflecting peak number, peak value and peak width, and the correlation between it and the sediment yield and runoff reached 0.60 and 0.71, respectively. Statistical rainfall characteristic indexes included rainfall amount, average rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, I5 (maximum 5-min rainfall intensity), I10, I15, I20, I30, and I60, among which I60 had the strongest correlation with runoff and sediment yield (0.69, 0.60), which were much larger than other rainfall indexes (0.08~0.47, 0.14~0.48) except rainfall amount (0.75, 0.37). By establishing a regression equation, it was found that both TPR and I60 had good explanatory power for runoff and weak explanatory power for sediment yield. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainfall peak; morphological characteristics; runoff; sediment yield rainfall peak; morphological characteristics; runoff; sediment yield
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, J.; Zhang, J.; Li, M.; Wang, F. Effect of Rain Peak Morphology on Runoff and Sediment Yield in Miyun Water Source Reserve in China. Water 2019, 11, 2429.

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