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Article

Solute Transport and Transformation in an Intermittent, Headwater Mountain Stream with Diurnal Discharge Fluctuations

1
O’Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, USA
2
The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3
Department of Hydrogeology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
4
U.S. Geological Survey Earth System Processes Division, Reston, VA, 20192, USA
5
Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
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Center for Applied Geoscience, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
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School of Geography, Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
8
Yorkshire Water, Bradford BD6 2SZ, UK
9
Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
10
University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, LEHNA - Laboratory of Ecology of Natural and Man-Impacted Hydrosystems, 69622 Lyon, France
11
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
12
Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group, Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), 17300 Blanes, Spain
13
Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
14
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
15
Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
16
US Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(11), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112208
Received: 9 September 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions)
Time-variable discharge is known to control both transport and transformation of solutes in the river corridor. Still, few studies consider the interactions of transport and transformation together. Here, we consider how diurnal discharge fluctuations in an intermittent, headwater stream control reach-scale solute transport and transformation as measured with conservative and reactive tracers during a period of no precipitation. One common conceptual model is that extended contact times with hyporheic zones during low discharge conditions allows for increased transformation of reactive solutes. Instead, we found tracer timescales within the reach were related to discharge, described by a single discharge-variable StorAge Selection function. We found that Resazurin to Resorufin (Raz-to-Rru) transformation is static in time, and apparent differences in reactive tracer were due to interactions with different ages of storage, not with time-variable reactivity. Overall we found reactivity was highest in youngest storage locations, with minimal Raz-to-Rru conversion in waters older than about 20 h of storage in our study reach. Therefore, not all storage in the study reach has the same potential biogeochemical function and increasing residence time of solute storage does not necessarily increase reaction potential of that solute, contrary to prevailing expectations. View Full-Text
Keywords: unsteady-state discharge; solute transport; intermittent stream; diurnal discharge fluctuations; reactive tracers; headwaters; river corridor; hyporheic; resazurin unsteady-state discharge; solute transport; intermittent stream; diurnal discharge fluctuations; reactive tracers; headwaters; river corridor; hyporheic; resazurin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ward, A.S.; Kurz, M.J.; Schmadel, N.M.; Knapp, J.L.A.; Blaen, P.J.; Harman, C.J.; Drummond, J.D.; Hannah, D.M.; Krause, S.; Li, A.; Marti, E.; Milner, A.; Miller, M.; Neil, K.; Plont, S.; Packman, A.I.; Wisnoski, N.I.; Wondzell, S.M.; Zarnetske, J.P. Solute Transport and Transformation in an Intermittent, Headwater Mountain Stream with Diurnal Discharge Fluctuations. Water 2019, 11, 2208. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112208

AMA Style

Ward AS, Kurz MJ, Schmadel NM, Knapp JLA, Blaen PJ, Harman CJ, Drummond JD, Hannah DM, Krause S, Li A, Marti E, Milner A, Miller M, Neil K, Plont S, Packman AI, Wisnoski NI, Wondzell SM, Zarnetske JP. Solute Transport and Transformation in an Intermittent, Headwater Mountain Stream with Diurnal Discharge Fluctuations. Water. 2019; 11(11):2208. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112208

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ward, Adam S., Marie J. Kurz, Noah M. Schmadel, Julia L.A. Knapp, Phillip J. Blaen, Ciaran J. Harman, Jennifer D. Drummond, David M. Hannah, Stefan Krause, Angang Li, Eugenia Marti, Alexander Milner, Melinda Miller, Kerry Neil, Stephen Plont, Aaron I. Packman, Nathan I. Wisnoski, Steven M. Wondzell, and Jay P. Zarnetske 2019. "Solute Transport and Transformation in an Intermittent, Headwater Mountain Stream with Diurnal Discharge Fluctuations" Water 11, no. 11: 2208. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112208

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