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Open AccessArticle

Mapping Dynamics of Bacterial Communities in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System Using Flow Cytometry

1
Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, SE-311 22 Falkenberg, Sweden
2
Applied Microbiology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
3
Sweden Water Research AB, Ideon Science Park, Scheelevägen 15, SE-223 70 Lund, Sweden
4
Sydvatten AB, Hyllie Stationstorg 21, SE-215 32 Malmö, Sweden
5
onCyt Microbiology AG, CH-8038 Zürich, Switzerland
6
Water Resources Engineering, Department of Building and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102137
Received: 9 September 2019 / Revised: 2 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 October 2019 / Published: 15 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
Microbial monitoring of drinking water is required to guarantee high quality water and to mitigate health hazards. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast and robust method that determines bacterial concentrations in liquids. In this study, FCM was applied to monitor the dynamics of the bacterial communities over one year in a full-scale drinking water distribution system (DWDS), following implementation of ultrafiltration (UF) combined with coagulation at the drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Correlations between the environmental conditions in the DWDS and microbial regrowth were observed, including increases in total cell counts with increasing retention time (correlation coefficient R = 0.89) and increasing water temperature (up to 5.24-fold increase in cell counts during summer). Temporal and spatial biofilm dynamics affecting the water within the DWDS were also observed, such as changes in the percentage of high nucleic acid bacteria with increasing retention time (correlation coefficient R = −0.79). FCM baselines were defined for specific areas in the DWDS to support future management strategies in this DWDS, including a gradual reduction of chloramine. View Full-Text
Keywords: flow cytometry; biofilm; drinking water distribution system; ultrafiltration; coagulation; drinking water management flow cytometry; biofilm; drinking water distribution system; ultrafiltration; coagulation; drinking water management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schleich, C.; Chan, S.; Pullerits, K.; Besmer, M.D.; Paul, C.J.; Rådström, P.; Keucken, A. Mapping Dynamics of Bacterial Communities in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System Using Flow Cytometry. Water 2019, 11, 2137. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102137

AMA Style

Schleich C, Chan S, Pullerits K, Besmer MD, Paul CJ, Rådström P, Keucken A. Mapping Dynamics of Bacterial Communities in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System Using Flow Cytometry. Water. 2019; 11(10):2137. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102137

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schleich, Caroline; Chan, Sandy; Pullerits, Kristjan; Besmer, Michael D.; Paul, Catherine J.; Rådström, Peter; Keucken, Alexander. 2019. "Mapping Dynamics of Bacterial Communities in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System Using Flow Cytometry" Water 11, no. 10: 2137. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102137

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