Next Article in Journal
Strategic Approach for Prioritising Local and Regional Sanitation Interventions for Reducing Global Antibiotic Resistance
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Water Table Depth on Soybean Water Use, Growth, and Yield Parameters
Previous Article in Journal
Insentek Sensor: An Alternative to Estimate Daily Crop Evapotranspiration for Maize Plants
Previous Article in Special Issue
Combining Chemical Flocculation and Disc Filtration with Managed Aquifer Recharge
Open AccessArticle

Water Disinfection by Immobilized Photosensitizers

Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Materials, Ariel University, Ariel 407000, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010026
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 16 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
  |  
PDF [1976 KB, uploaded 2 January 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Fresh water shortage has become a global problem. A partial solution for this problem is the use of treated and disinfected wastewater for irrigation. However, most existing wastewater disinfection methods are based on the use of aggressive chemicals or power-consuming physical processes. Photodynamic eradication of waterborne bacteria by immobilized photosensitizers may be a good alternative to conventional methods. In the present work, the photosensitizers Rose Bengal sodium salt, Rose Bengal lactone, methylene blue, and hematoporphyrin were immobilized in polyethylene or polypropylene using a “green” method of co-extrusion, without addition of any chemicals, yielding polymeric strips and beads containing the photosensitizers. The antibacterial efficiency of these immobilized photosensitizers was tested against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli in batch and continuous regimes upon illumination with a white luminescent lamp. All examined photosensitizers demonstrated a good ability to decrease the bacterial concentration, up to their total eradication. Immobilized photosensitizers are proposed for batch or continuous disinfection of wastewater after secondary treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: photosensitizers; PACT; Rose Bengal; methylene blue; hematoporphyrin; water disinfection photosensitizers; PACT; Rose Bengal; methylene blue; hematoporphyrin; water disinfection
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Valkov, A.; Raik, K.A.; Mualem-Sinai, Y.; Nakonechny, F.; Nisnevitch, M. Water Disinfection by Immobilized Photosensitizers. Water 2019, 11, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top