Next Article in Journal
Determination of Micropollutants in Water Samples from Swimming Pool Systems
Next Article in Special Issue
Numerical Simulation of Gate Control for Unsteady Irrigation Flow to Improve Water Use Efficiency in Farming
Previous Article in Journal
Water Stewardship: Attributes of Collaborative Partnerships between Mining Companies and Communities
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of AquaCrop Model for Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) Growth and Water Use with Plastic Film Mulching and No Mulching under Different Weather Conditions
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(8), 1082;

Low Water Productivity for Rice in Bihar, India—A Critical Analysis

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Lalitpur 44700, Nepal
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Canberra 2601, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Agriculture Water Efficiency)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1554 KB, uploaded 14 August 2018]   |  


Rice is the most important crop for food security and livelihoods of the rural population in Bihar, India. In spite of good soil and water resources, rice water productivity (WP) is very low in Bihar. Trends in WP and key factors influencing WP over 20 years (1991–2010) in 11 Bihar districts were analysed using panel data to help elucidate reasons for low WP values. The annual average rice yield of 938 kg/ha, WP of 0.22 kg/m3, and marginal physical productivity (MPP) of 249 g/m3 are very low in Bihar compared to both the national average for India and other rice growing areas in the world. Rice WP and MPP were higher for the garma (dry) season than for the kharif (monsoon) season. Temporal analysis showed that WP was slowly declining in most districts, while spatial analysis showed a significant variation in WP across the districts. Regression analysis showed that the availability of irrigation facilities, occurrence of flood and drought, and cropping intensity had significant influence on rice WP. Causes for temporal and spatial changes in WP are highlighted and actions to improve rice WP in Bihar are suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: water productivity; marginal physical productivity; spatiotemporal perspective; Koshi River basin; Bihar; India water productivity; marginal physical productivity; spatiotemporal perspective; Koshi River basin; Bihar; India

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Najmuddin, O.; Rasul, G.; Hussain, A.; Molden, D.; Wahid, S.; Debnath, B. Low Water Productivity for Rice in Bihar, India—A Critical Analysis. Water 2018, 10, 1082.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top