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Water 2018, 10(8), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081082

Low Water Productivity for Rice in Bihar, India—A Critical Analysis

1
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Lalitpur 44700, Nepal
2
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
3
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Canberra 2601, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Agriculture Water Efficiency)
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Abstract

Rice is the most important crop for food security and livelihoods of the rural population in Bihar, India. In spite of good soil and water resources, rice water productivity (WP) is very low in Bihar. Trends in WP and key factors influencing WP over 20 years (1991–2010) in 11 Bihar districts were analysed using panel data to help elucidate reasons for low WP values. The annual average rice yield of 938 kg/ha, WP of 0.22 kg/m3, and marginal physical productivity (MPP) of 249 g/m3 are very low in Bihar compared to both the national average for India and other rice growing areas in the world. Rice WP and MPP were higher for the garma (dry) season than for the kharif (monsoon) season. Temporal analysis showed that WP was slowly declining in most districts, while spatial analysis showed a significant variation in WP across the districts. Regression analysis showed that the availability of irrigation facilities, occurrence of flood and drought, and cropping intensity had significant influence on rice WP. Causes for temporal and spatial changes in WP are highlighted and actions to improve rice WP in Bihar are suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: water productivity; marginal physical productivity; spatiotemporal perspective; Koshi River basin; Bihar; India water productivity; marginal physical productivity; spatiotemporal perspective; Koshi River basin; Bihar; India
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Najmuddin, O.; Rasul, G.; Hussain, A.; Molden, D.; Wahid, S.; Debnath, B. Low Water Productivity for Rice in Bihar, India—A Critical Analysis. Water 2018, 10, 1082.

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