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Water 2018, 10(10), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101436 (registering DOI)

Observed Trends of Climate and River Discharge in Mongolia’s Selenga Sub-Basin of the Lake Baikal Basin

1
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China
2
Department of Environment and Forest Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia
3
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR), Beijing 100038, China
4
Water Resources Department, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR), Beijing 100038, China
5
Department of Geography, School of Art & Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia
6
School of Resources and Earth Science, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
7
Department of Natural Resource Management, University of Gondar, Gondar 196, Ethiopia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract

Mongolia’s Selenga sub-basin of the Lake Baikal basin is spatially extensive, with pronounced environmental gradients driven primarily by precipitation and air temperature on broad scales. Therefore, it is an ideal region to examine the dynamics of the climate and the hydrological system. This study investigated the annual precipitation, air temperature, and river discharge variability at five selected stations of the sub-basin by using Mann-Kendall (MK), Innovative trend analysis method (ITAM), and Sen’s slope estimator test. The result showed that the trend of annual precipitation was slightly increasing in Ulaanbaatar (Z = 0.71), Erdenet (Z = 0.13), and Tsetserleg (Z = 0.26) stations. Whereas Murun (Z = 2.45) and Sukhbaatar (Z = 1.06) stations showed a significant increasing trend. And also, the trend of annual air temperature in Ulaanbaatar (Z = 5.88), Erdenet (Z = 3.87), Tsetserleg (Z = 4.38), Murun (Z = 4.77), and Sukhbaatar (Z = 2.85) was sharply increased. The average air temperature has significantly increased by 1.4 °C in the past 38 years. This is very high in the semi-arid zone of central Asia. The river discharge showed a significantly decreasing trend during the study period years. It has been apparent since 1995. The findings of this paper could help researchers to understand the annual variability of precipitation, air temperature, and river discharge over the study region and, therefore, become a foundation for further studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: precipitation; air temperature; river discharge; Mann-Kendall test; Selenga river basin; Lake Baikal basin; Mongolia precipitation; air temperature; river discharge; Mann-Kendall test; Selenga river basin; Lake Baikal basin; Mongolia
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Dorjsuren, B.; Yan, D.; Wang, H.; Chonokhuu, S.; Enkhbold, A.; Yiran, X.; Girma, A.; Gedefaw, M.; Abiyu, A. Observed Trends of Climate and River Discharge in Mongolia’s Selenga Sub-Basin of the Lake Baikal Basin. Water 2018, 10, 1436.

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