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Quantitative Detection of Clogging in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Using the Resistivity Method

1
Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
2
River Management Office of Qinhuagndao City, Qinhuagndao City 066000, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
4
Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China
5
Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
6
Key Laboratory of Ocean Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(10), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101334
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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PDF [2194 KB, uploaded 26 September 2018]
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Abstract

Substrate clogging seriously affects the lifetime and treatment performance of subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs), and the quantitative detection of clogging is the key challenge in the management of substrate clogging. This paper explores the feasibility of the resistivity method to detect the clogging degree of an SSF CW. The clogged substrate was found to have a high water-holding capacity, which led to low apparent resistivity in the draining phase. On the basis of the resistivity characteristics, clogging quantification was performed with a standard laboratory procedure, i.e., the Wenner method used in a Miller Soil Box. The apparent resistivity to sediment fraction (v/v) (ARSF) model was established to evaluate the degree of clogging from the apparent resistivity. The results showed that the ARSF model fit well with the actual values (linear slope = 0.986; R-squared = 0.98). The methods for in situ resistivity detection were applied in a lab-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF CW). Combined with the ARSF model, the two-probe method demonstrated high accuracy for clogging quantification (relative error less than 9%). These results suggest that the resistivity method is a reliable and feasible technique for in situ detection of clogging in SSF CWs. View Full-Text
Keywords: horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland; substrate clogging; detection method; apparent resistivity; clogging quantification; in situ horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland; substrate clogging; detection method; apparent resistivity; clogging quantification; in situ
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, H.; Hu, Z.; Song, S.; Zhang, J.; Nie, L.; Hu, H.; Li, F.; Liu, Z. Quantitative Detection of Clogging in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Using the Resistivity Method. Water 2018, 10, 1334.

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