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Removal of Antimony Species, Sb(III)/Sb(V), from Water by Using Iron Coagulants

Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Laboratory of Chemical & Environmental Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(10), 1328;
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
PDF [2430 KB, uploaded 26 September 2018]


Antimony (Sb) is classified as a toxic pollutant of high priority, because its effects on human health (toxicity) are similar to those of arsenic. However, unlike arsenic, the removal of antimony from polluted waters is still not well understood. In the present study the removal of common antimony species in water, namely, Sb(III) and Sb(V), was investigated by the addition of iron-based coagulants. The applied coagulants were Fe(II), Fe(III), and equimolar mixed Fe(II)/Fe(III) salts and the experiments were performed with realistic antimony concentrations in the range 10–100 μg/L, by using artificially polluted tap water solutions. Sb(III) removal by Fe(III) provided better adsorption capacity at a residual concentration equal to the drinking water regulation limit of 5 μg/L, that is, Q5 = 4.7 μg Sb(III)/mg Fe(III) at pH 7, which was much higher than the value achieved by the addition of Fe(II) salts, that is, Q5 = 0.45 μg Sb(III)/mg Fe(II), at the same pH value. Similarly, Sb(V) was more efficiently removed by Fe(III) addition, than by the other examined coagulants. However, Fe(III) uptake capacity for Sb(V) was found to be significantly lower, that is, Q5 = 1.82 μg Sb(V)/mg Fe(III), than the corresponding value for Sb(III). The obtained results can give a realistic overview of the efficiency of conventionally used iron-based coagulants and of their mixture for achieving Sb concentrations below the respective drinking water regulation limit and therefore, they can be subsequently applied for the designing of real-scale water treatment units. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimony treatment; Sb(III); Sb(V); Fe-based coagulants; polluted waters antimony treatment; Sb(III); Sb(V); Fe-based coagulants; polluted waters

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Mitrakas, M.; Mantha, Z.; Tzollas, N.; Stylianou, S.; Katsoyiannis, I.; Zouboulis, A. Removal of Antimony Species, Sb(III)/Sb(V), from Water by Using Iron Coagulants. Water 2018, 10, 1328.

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