The Impact of Cloud Radiative Effects on the Tropical Tropopause Layer Temperatures
AbstractA single-column radiative-convective model (RCM) is a useful tool to investigate the physical processes that determine the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) temperature structures. Previous studies on the TTL using the RCMs, however, omitted the cloud radiative effects. In this study, we examine the impact of cloud radiative effects on the simulated TTL temperatures using an RCM. We derive the cloud radiative effects based on satellite observations, which show heating rates in the troposphere but cooling rates in the stratosphere. We find that the cloud radiative effect warms the TTL by as much as 2 K but cools the lower stratosphere by as much as −1.5 K, resulting in a thicker TTL. With (without) considering cloud radiative effects, we obtain a convection top of ≈167 hPa (≈150 hPa) with a temperature of ≈213 K (≈209 K), and a cold point at ≈87 hPa (≈94 hPa) with a temperature of ≈204 K (≈204 K). Therefore, the cloud radiative effects widen the TTL by both lowering the convection-top height and enhancing the cold-point height. We also examine the impact of TTL cirrus radiative effects on the RCM-simulated temperatures. We find that the TTL cirrus warms the TTL with a maximum temperature increase of ≈1.3 K near 110 hPa. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Fu, Q.; Smith, M.; Yang, Q. The Impact of Cloud Radiative Effects on the Tropical Tropopause Layer Temperatures. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 377.
Fu Q, Smith M, Yang Q. The Impact of Cloud Radiative Effects on the Tropical Tropopause Layer Temperatures. Atmosphere. 2018; 9(10):377.Chicago/Turabian Style
Fu, Qiang; Smith, Maxwell; Yang, Qiong. 2018. "The Impact of Cloud Radiative Effects on the Tropical Tropopause Layer Temperatures." Atmosphere 9, no. 10: 377.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.