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Meteorological Applications Benefiting from an Improved Understanding of Atmospheric Exchange Processes over Mountains

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
2
Climate and Environment Consultancy, Deutscher Wetterdienst, 63067 Offenbach am Main, Germany
3
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307, USA
4
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 Trento, Italy
5
C3A—Center Agriculture Food Environment, University of Trento, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2018, 9(10), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9100371
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain)
This paper reviews the benefits of a better understanding of atmospheric exchange processes over mountains. These processes affect weather and climate variables that are important in meteorological applications related to many scientific disciplines and sectors of the economy. We focus this review on examples of meteorological applications in hydrology, ecology, agriculture, urban planning, wind energy, transportation, air pollution, and climate change. These examples demonstrate the benefits of a more accurate knowledge of atmospheric exchange processes over mountains, including a better understanding of snow redistribution, microclimate, land-cover change, frost hazards, urban ventilation, wind gusts, road temperatures, air pollution, and the impacts of climate change. The examples show that continued research on atmospheric exchange processes over mountains is warranted, and that a recognition of the potential benefits can inspire new research directions. An awareness of the links between basic research topics and applications is important to the success and impact of new efforts that aim at better understanding atmospheric exchange processes over mountains. To maximize the benefits of future research for meteorological applications, coordinated international efforts involving scientists studying atmospheric exchange processes, as well as scientists and stakeholders representing many other scientific disciplines and economic sectors are required. View Full-Text
Keywords: meteorological applications; mountain meteorology; land-atmosphere interactions; transport and mixing; atmospheric boundary layer processes; atmospheric exchange meteorological applications; mountain meteorology; land-atmosphere interactions; transport and mixing; atmospheric boundary layer processes; atmospheric exchange
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Wekker, S.F.J.; Kossmann, M.; Knievel, J.C.; Giovannini, L.; Gutmann, E.D.; Zardi, D. Meteorological Applications Benefiting from an Improved Understanding of Atmospheric Exchange Processes over Mountains. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 371. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9100371

AMA Style

De Wekker SFJ, Kossmann M, Knievel JC, Giovannini L, Gutmann ED, Zardi D. Meteorological Applications Benefiting from an Improved Understanding of Atmospheric Exchange Processes over Mountains. Atmosphere. 2018; 9(10):371. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9100371

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Wekker, Stephan F.J.; Kossmann, Meinolf; Knievel, Jason C.; Giovannini, Lorenzo; Gutmann, Ethan D.; Zardi, Dino. 2018. "Meteorological Applications Benefiting from an Improved Understanding of Atmospheric Exchange Processes over Mountains" Atmosphere 9, no. 10: 371. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9100371

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