- freely available
Atmosphere 2017, 8(11), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8110209
and, in a similar way, it defines a cold wave as:"A marked unusual hot weather (Max, Min and daily average) over a region persisting at least two consecutive days during the hot period of the year based on local climatological conditions, with thermal conditions recorded above given thresholds"
"A marked and unusual cold weather characterized by a sharp and significant drop of air temperatures near the surface (Max, Min and daily average) over a large area and persisting below certain thresholds for at least two consecutive days during the cold season."
2. Heat Waves
- during the 2003 heat wave in France, rivers reached record temperatures and caused a slowdown in the cooling process of nuclear plants. This reduced power generation capacity by 4000 MW and nuclear power generation by 5.3 TWh, even though the actual electricity supply was unrestricted (yet EDF, the most important electricity producer in France, had to halve its exports to Switzerland, Britain, Italy, Belgium and Spain during peak periods) . For the same heat wave in Spain the cumulative electricity demand in August peaked nearly to 13% above the values for the previous year ;
- during the California 2006 heat wave , transformers warmed to the extent of breaking the fuses and burning the insulation; this resulted in short circuits that led to significant failure in almost 900 electricity transformers in the Los Angeles area, causing electricity outages that affected over 80,000 people throughout several days. In the north of California more than 1000 transformers were impacted, bringing about electricity shortages that affected around 1.3 million clients [13,22]. Also in 2013, a report by the US Department of Energy  already listed up to twelve crises affecting different energy production infrastructures in the US since 2006 due to extremely high temperatures, including nuclear plant shutdowns due to heat waves;
- in 2007 the State of Victoria (Australia) suffered a power outage resulting from a heat wave that also caused fires. As a consequence of the fires, two key electricity transportation lines were affected and thus provoked a cascading failure that left the national electricity system divided in three isolated areas. More than eight hours were necessary for a full restoration of the grid. and, as a result, about 690,000 electricity consumers suffered power outages. This included about 70,000 businesses, which were at a standstill for over a week in some cases. Unsupplied electricity amounted to 7100 MWh, with a direct cost of AU$235 million. This together with indirect impacts (interruptions in transport, communications, health, etc.) entailed an economic cost of about AU$500 million. For large firms, direct costs ranged between AU$0.05 and 30 million per affected site ;
- in March 2008 the nearby South Australian region also suffered heat waves leading to record electricity demands on three separate occasions. The impact of high temperatures on the capacity of the electricity distribution network, together with the unexpected excess burden brought about by the increased use of air conditioning, caused problems to maintain the electricity supply on the transmission grid; it reduced the instantaneous reserve margin up to 7%, and it ultimately led to rocketing electricity market prices. Thus, the price exceeded AU$5000/MWh 26 times, and it exceeded AU$7000/MWh six times with an average price of AU$353/MWh in March. The cumulative total price increased by over AU$150,000 and forced the electricity market operator to set a price cap. The heat wave was claimed to have allowed electricity companies to obtain extra revenues of nearly AU$200 million . The heat wave suffered by Southeast Australia in the summer of 2009 caused financial losses estimated at AU$800 million, mainly resulting from power outages, interruptions in transport service and response costs . The electricity sector was the most vulnerable to heat, which particularly affected the transmission and distribution systems, on the verge of collapsing given that they were operating at close to full capacity. Interruptions occurring in major transportation lines, as well as failures in the instrumentation transformers and in local voltage transformers, caused blackouts that left hundreds of thousands of homes and businesses without electricity on 30 January and accounted for AU$100 million in damages .
3. Cold Waves
4. The Role of Seasonal Forecast
5. Discussion and Recommendations for Future Works
- return periods of extreme temperatures (and other extreme weather events) change with climate change. Such variations may lead to lack of accuracy concerning future physical efficiency and economic viability during the planning of new power production infrastructures. Therefore, the decision process for setting up these facilities should include a complete assessment of potential changes in such return periods.
- Single extreme weather events are less likely to pose a risk for the power production sector and energy security than are compound extreme events. Compound events are defined as “(i) two or more extreme events occurring simultaneously or successively, (ii) combinations of extreme events with underlying conditions that amplify the impact of the events, or (iii) combinations of events that are not themselves extreme but lead to an extreme event or impact when combined” . That is, a cold spell itself could represent a problem but, if enough water is stored in reservoirs, hydropower production can address the problem. However a cold wave combined with a prolonged drought period, or more physically-extreme low accumulated precipitation over a long period of time can represent a clear threat for energy security. This is especially relevant if we take into account that water scarcity and other alterations of the hydrological cycle are well-known consequences of climate change. We therefore suggest that an increasing effort should be set forth both from the point of view of climate sciences and economics to address the issues concerning the probable incidence of compounded extreme weather events and their impact on the energy market.
- As it has been exposed along this work, one of the typical scenarios for power outages resulting from heat and cold waves also involves a huge increase in electricity demmand because for air conditioning or heating. Therefore the ability to manage peak electricity demmand is an obvious candidate for adaptation and resilence measurements. A report for a region as California, that has already suffered a blackout in the past decade because of such conditions, suggest that reduction of demmand through energy efficiency programs as a main measurement .
- Diversification of supply sources can be an effective idea to decrease exposition to power outages. This includes the possibility of using off-grid small generation facilities for backup (e.g., solar photovoltaic).
- Where they do not exist yet, vulnerability assessments and resilience plans for the energy sector should be developed both at the government and company levels. An example of this is a recent report by the U.S. Department of Energy . In this sense, the report identifies a compound event of a drought and a heat wave that affected a power station in Braidwood (US) in 2012.
- In general it is acknowledge that the power sector should increase investement on R&D to improve adaptation and resilence to climate change and extreme weather. Companies of different sectors already have performed evaluations in collaboration with academia on how these phenomena could affect their operations in the future. It is strongly suggested that every stakeholder in the energy sector do it.
- The existence of potentially huge benefits from improvements in seasonal forecasts and their application in the energy sector, make it likely for bigger investments in this field to generate sizeable returns. This should include better studies of El Niño-La Niña seasons. In some way, most of the regions of the planet have overlooked this link to date despite their well-known global-regional teleconnections and the fact that they introduce interannual variability that can heavily affect energy production and demand.
- Making a pre-emptive investment to construct or renovate plant cooling towers could avoid the loss of power generation associated to heat waves. However, the cost of renewing existing cooling towers in a plant to allow for 2–3 °C cooler water would be approximately 2.5 €/kW, while the cost for building the towers would amount to 80 €/kW. For its part, avoiding increased losses in the transport network would require an investment of 40 €/kW. In this context, the actual annual regional costs for adapting to climate change in 2080 would, in function of the European region, range between 166 and 527 million euros due to increased air temperature, and between 67 and 308 million euros due to a greater recurrence of heat waves .
- For new thermoelectric plants (for old ones it would be too expensive or not feasible) introducing pumps with higher capacity can help to decrease wastewater temperature .
- In the near future decision making systems for energy production should incorporate potential effects of extreme events on a daily basis. This must be done by automatically including meteorological information from observations and models and decision algorithms. Some tests using such methodologies have already been performed successfully . Integrating Big Data in the decision process may also improve the management of potential crisis from heat and cold waves .
Conflicts of Interest
- World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Guidelines on the Definition and Monitoring of Extreme Weather and Climate Events; TT-DEWCE. 4/14/2016 Technical Report; World Meteorological Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Peterson, T.C.; Stott, P.A.; Herring, S. Explaining extreme events of 2011 from a climate perspective. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 2012, 93, 1041–1067. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. In Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2013; p. 1535. [Google Scholar]
- Kenward, A.; Raja, U. Blackout: Extreme Weather, Climate Change and Power Outages; Technical Report; Climate Central: Princeton, NJ, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Coughlin, K.; Goldman, C. Physical Impacts of Climate Change on the Western US Electricity System: A Scoping Study; Technical Report; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Berkeley, CA, USA, 2008.
- Añel, J. Atmospheric ozone: Historical background and state-of-the-art. Contemp. Phys. 2016, 57, 417–420. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dell, J.; Tierney, S.; Franco, G.; Newell, R.; Richels, R.; Weyant, J.; Wilbanks, T. Energy supply and use. In Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment; Melillo, J., Richmond, T., Yohe, G., Eds.; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Nye, D.E. When the Lights Went Out: A History of Blackouts in America; The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2010; p. 292. [Google Scholar]
- Executive Office of the President. Economic Benefits of Increasing Electric Grid Resilience to Weather Outages; Technical Report; The White House: Washington, DC, USA, 2013.
- Troccoli, A.; Dubus, L.; Haupt, S.E. (Eds.) Weather Matters for Energy; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2014; p. 528. [Google Scholar]
- Añel, J. On the importance of weather and climate change for our present and future energy needs. Contemp. Phys. 2015, 56, 206–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Edenhofer, O.; Pichs-Madruga, R.; Sokona, Y.; Seyboth, K.; Matschoss, P.; Kadner, S.; Zwickel, T.; Eickemeier, P.; Hansen, G.; Schlömer, S.; et al. IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2011; p. 1088. [Google Scholar]
- Aivalioti, S. Electricity Sector Adaptation to Heat Waves; Technical Report; Sabin Center for Climate Change Law Columbia Law School: New York, NY, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Jahn, M. Economics of extreme weather events: Terminology and regional impact models. Weather Clim. Extremes 2015, 10, 29–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- MARSH Risk Management Research. Historical Loss Experiences in the Global Power Industry; Technical Report; MARSH: London, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force. Interim Report: Causes of the August 14th Blackout in the United States and Canada; Technical Report; Canadian Embassy: Washington, DC, USA, 2003.
- National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). November 1996 Spokane, Washington, Local Climatological Data; Technical Report; National Climatic Data Center: Asheville, NC, USA, 1996.
- Chang, S.E.; McDaniels, T.L.; Mikawoz, J.; Peterson, K. Infrastructure failure interdependencies in extreme events: Power outage consequences in the 1998 Ice Storm. Nat. Hazards 2007, 41, 337–358. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Henson, W.; Stewart, R.; Kochtubajda, B.; Thériault, J. The 1998 Ice Storm: Local flow fields and linkages to precipitation. Atmos. Res. 2011, 101, 852–862. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Waple, A.M.; Lawrimore, J.H. State of the Climate in 2002. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 2003, 84, 800. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Iacobellis, S.F. The Great 2006 Heat Wave over California and Nevada: Signal of an Increasing Trend. J. Clim. 2009, 22, 6181–6203. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- U.S. Department of Energy. U.S. Energy Sector Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and Extreme Weather; Technical Report; U.S. Department of Energy: Washington, DC, USA, 2013.
- Victoria State Government. January Supply Interruptions—Executive Summary; Technical Report; Victoria State Government: Victoria, Australia, 2007.
- Bureau of Meteorology. Special Climate Statement 48—One of Southeast Australia’s Most Significant Heatwaves; Technical Report; Australia Goverment Bureau of Meteorology: Melbourne, Australia, 2014.
- Tomaszewski, M.; Ruszczak, B. Analysis of frequency of occurrence of weather conditions favouring wet snow adhesion and accretion on overhead power lines in Poland. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 2013, 85, 102–108. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Skarbek, L.; Zak, A.; Ambroziak, D. Damage Detection Strategies in Structural Health Monitoring of Overhead Power Transmission System. In Proceedings of the EWSHM-7th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Nantes, France, 8–11, July 2014; pp. 663–670. [Google Scholar]
- McEvoy, D.; Ahmed, I.; Mullet, J. The impact of the 2009 heat wave on Melbourne’s critical infrastructure. Local Environ. 2012, 17, 783–796. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hardiman, M. Intense Cold Wave of February 2011; Technical Report; National Weather Service: El Paso, TX, USA; Santa Teresa, NM, USA, 2011.
- Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; North American Electric Reliability Corporation. Report on Outages and Curtailments during the Southwest Cold Weather Event of 1–5 February 2011; Causes and Recommendations; Technical Report; Federal Energy Regulatory Commission: Washington, DC, USA, 2011.
- Blowfield, M.; Johnson, L. Turnaround Challenge: Business & the City of the Future; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2013; p. 264. [Google Scholar]
- Basrur, R.; Chang, Y.; Koh, S.L.C. Nuclear Energy in Asia: The end of the renaissance? In Routledge Handbook of Environment and Society in Asia; Harris, P.G., Lang, G., Eds.; Routledge: London, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2014; pp. 423–437. [Google Scholar]
- National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). National Climate Report—October 2011 (Accessed 8 October 2017); Technical Report; National Climatic Data Center: Asheville, NC, USA, 2011.
- Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; The North American Electric Reliability Corporation. Report on Transmission Facility Outages during the Northeast Snowstorm of 29–30 October 2011; Technical Report; Office of Enforcement Federal Energy Regulatory Commission: Washington, DC, USA, 2012.
- Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC). Report on the Grid Disturbance on 30th July 2012 and Grid Disturbance on 31st July 2012; Technical Report; Central Electricity Regulatory Commission: New Delhi, India, 2012.
- North American Electric Reliability Corporation. Polar Vortex Review; Technical Report; North American Electric Reliability Corporation: Atlanta, GA, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Wolter, K.; Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.K.; van Oldenborgh, G.J.; Quan, X.W.; Walsh, J.E.; Chase, T.N.; Dole, R.M. How unusual was the cold winter of 2013/14 in the upper midwest? [in “Explaining Extremes of 2014 from a Climate Perspective”]. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 2015, 96, S10–S15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rademaekers, K.; van der Laan, J.; Boeve, S.; Lise, W.; van Hienen, J.; Metz, B.; Haigh, P.; de Groot, K.; Dijkstra, S.; Jansen, J.; et al. Investment Needs for Future Adaptation Measures in EU Nuclear Power Plants and Other Electricity Generation Technologies due to Effects of Climate Change; Technical Report; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Linnerud, K.; Mideksa, T.; Eskeland, G. The impact of climate change on nuclear power supply. Energy J. 2011, 32, 149–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rübbelke, D.; Vögele, S. Impacts of climate change on European critical infrastructures: The case of the power sector. Environ. Sci. Policy 2011, 14, 53–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Förster, H.; Lilliestam, J. Modeling thermoelectric power generation in view of climate change. Reg. Environ. Chang. 2010, 10, 327–338. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Davis, M.; Clemmer, S. Power Failure. In How Climate Change Puts Our Electricity at Risk and What We Can Do; Union of Concerned Scientists: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Miller, N.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M. Climate, Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 2008, 47, 1834–1844. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Behrens, P.; van Vliet, M.T.H.; Nanninga, T.; Walsh, B.; Rodrigues, J.F.D. Climate change and the vulnerability of electricity generation to water stress in the European Union. Nat. Energy 2017, 2, 17114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ganguli, P.; Kumar, D.; Ganguly, A.R. US Power Production at Risk from Water Stress in a Changing Climate. Sci. Rep. 2017, 7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Beard, L.; Cardell, J.; Dobson, I.; Galvan, F.; Hawkins, D.; Jewell, W.; Kezunovic, M.; Overbye, T.; Sen, P.; Tylavsky, D. Key technical challenges for the electric power industry and climate change. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 2010, 25, 465–473. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- López-Zafra, J.; Sánchez de Tembleque, L.; Meneu-Ferrer, V.; Ardines Tomás, E.; Gimeno Nogués, R.; de Cabo, R.M.; Pardo Tornero, A.; de Paz Cobo, S.; Valor Micó, E. Impactos Sobre el Sector Energético; Technical Report; Ministerio de Medio Ambiente: Madrid, Spain, 2005.
- WattClarity. Effects of the Heatwave of March 2008 on the South Australian Region; Technical Report; Global-Roam: Queensland, Australia, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Climate Change: Adapt Now for the Future; Issues Magazine: Penticton, Canada, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Queensland University of Technology. Impacts and Adaptation Response of Infrastructure and Communities to Heatwaves: The Southern Australian Experience of 2009; Report for the National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility, Gold Coast, Australia; Technical Report; National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility: Southport, Australia, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Jendritzky, G. Impacts of extreme and persistent temperatures—Cold waves and heat waves. In Proceedings of the WMO/UNESCO Sub-Forum on Science and Technology in Support of Natural Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland, 6–8 July 1999; pp. 43–53. [Google Scholar]
- Panteli, M.; Mancarella, P. Influence of extreme weather and climate change on the resilience of power systems: Impacts and possible mitigation strategies. Electr. Power Syst. Res. 2015, 127, 259–270. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Adams, C. Impacts of Temperature Extremes. In Proceedings of the Workshop on the Social and Economic Impacts of Weather, Boulder, CO, USA, 2–4 April 1997. [Google Scholar]
- Déandreis, C.; Pincet, P.; Braconnot, P.; Planton, S. Impact of Climate Change on Demand for Gas; Development of Climate Criteria for Vulnerability to Cold Waves; Technical Report; GDF-Suez: La Défense, France, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET). Informe Mensual Climatológico; Enero de 2017; Technical Report; Agencia Estatal de Meteorología: Madrid, Spain, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Massey, N.; Jones, R.; Otto, F.E.L.; Aina, T.; Wilson, S.; Murphy, J.M.; Hassel, D.; Yamazaki, Y.H.; Allen, M.R. [email protected]—Development and validation of a very large ensemble modelling system for probabilistic event attribution. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 2014, 141, 1528–1545. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Añel, J.A.; López-Moreno, J.I.; Otto, F.E.L.; Vicente-Serrano, S.; Schaller, N.; Massey, N.; Buisán, S.T.; Allen, M. The extreme snow accumulation in the western Spanish Pyrenees during Winter and Spring 2013. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 2014, 95, S73–S76. [Google Scholar]
- Cardoso Pereira, S.; Marta-Almeida, M.; Carvalho, A.C.; Rocha, A. Heat wave and cold spell changes in Iberia for a future climate scenario. Int. J. Clim. 2017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Manual on Codes: Part A—Alphanumeric Codes: International Codes; Technical Report; World Meteorological Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Kämäräinen, M.; Hyvärinen, O.; Jylhä, K.; Vajda, A.; Neiglick, S.; Nuottokari, J.; Gregow, H. A method to estimate freezing rain climatology from ERA-Interim reanalysis over Europe. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 2017, 17, 243–259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cheng, C.; Guilong, L.; Auld, H. Possible Impacts of Climate Change on Freezing Rain Using Downscaled Future Climate Scenarios: Updated for Eastern Canada. Atmos.-Ocean 2011, 49, 8–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lambert, S.; Hansen, B. Simulated Changes in the Freezing Rain Climatology of North America under Global Warming Using a Coupled Climate Model. Atmos.-Ocean 2011, 49, 289–295. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lemaître, O. Meteorology, Climate and Energy. In Management of Weather and Climate Risk in the Energy Industry; Troccoli, A., Ed.; Springer: Dordretch, The Netherlands, 2010; pp. 51–66. [Google Scholar]
- Love, G.; Plummer, N.; Muirhead, I.; Grant, I.; Rakich, C. Meteorology and the Energy Sector. In Weather Matters for Energy; Troccoli, A., Dubus, L., Haupt, S.E., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2014; pp. 221–235. [Google Scholar]
- Dutton, J.A.; James, R.P.; Ross, J.D. A probabilistic view of weather, climate and the energy industry. In Weather Matters for Energy; Troccoli, A., Dubus, L., Haupt, S.E., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2014; pp. 353–378. [Google Scholar]
- De Felice, M.; Alessandri, A.; Catalano, F. Seasonal climate forecasts for medium-term electricity demand forecasting. Appl. Energy 2015, 137, 435–444. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- International Business Machines (IBM). Weather Company Seasonal Forecasts for Energy and Utilities (Product ID: 5737-C54); International Business Machines: New York, NY, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Trigo, R.; Osborn, T.J.; Corte-Real, J. The North Atlantic Oscillation influence on Europe: Climate impacts and associated physical mechanisms. Clim. Res. 2002, 20, 9–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Clark, R.T.; Bett, P.E.; Thornton, H.; Scaife, A. Skilful seasonal predictions for the European energy industry. Environ. Res. Lett. 2017, 12, 024002. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dunstone, N.; Smith, D.; Scaife, A.; Hermanson, L.; Eade, R.; Robinson, N.; Andrews, M.; Knight, J. Skilful predictions of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation one year ahead. Nat. Geosci. 2016, 9, 809–814. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dubus, L. Monthly and Seasonal Forecast in the French Power Sector; ECMWF: Reading, UK, 2012; p. 12. [Google Scholar]
- Bett, P.E.; Thornton, H.; Lockwood, J.F.; Scaife, A.A.; Golding, N.; Hewitt, C.; Zhu, R.; Zhang, P.; Li, C. Skill and reliability of seasonal forecasts for the Chinese energy sector. J. Clim. 2017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thornton, H.; Scaife, A.; Hoskins, B.; Brayshaw, D. The relationship between wind power, electricity demand and winter weather patterns in Great Britain. Environ. Res. Lett. 2017, 12, 064017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Añel, J. The stratosphere: History and future a century after its discovery. Contemp. Phys. 2016, 57, 230–233. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rutten, M.; van de Giesen, N.; Baptist, M.; Icke, J.; Uijttewaal, W. Seasonal forecast of cooling water problems in the River Rhine. Hydrol. Process. 2008, 22, 1037–1045. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Troccoli, A. Seasonal climate forecasting. Meteorol. Appl. 2010, 17, 251–268. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ardilouze, C.; Batté, L.; Déqué, M. Subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) forecasts with CNRM-CM: A case study on the July 2015 West-European heat wave. Adv. Sci. Res. 2017, 14, 115–121. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De la Torre, L.; Garcia, R.; Barriopedro, D.; Chandran, A. Climatology and characteristics of stratospheric sudden warmings in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. J. Geophys. Res. 2012, 117, D04110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Scaife, A.; Karpechko, A.; Baldwin, M.; Brookshaw, A.; Butler, A.; Eade, R.; Gordon, M.; MacLachLan, C.; Martin, N.; Dunstone, N.; et al. Seasonal winter forecasts and the stratosphere. Atmos. Sci. Lett. 2016, 17, 51–56. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Buehler, T.; Raible, C.; Stocker, T. The relationship of winter season North Atlantic blocking frequencies to extreme cold or dry spells in the ERA-40. Tellus A 2010, 63, 212–222. [Google Scholar]
- Dole, R.; Hoerling, M.; Perlwitz, J.; Eischeid, J.; Pegion, P.; Zhang, T.; Quan, X.W.; Xu, T.; Murray, D. Was there a basis for anticipating the 2010 Russian heat wave? Geophys. Res. Lett. 2011, 38, L06702. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pfahl, S.; Wernli, H. Quantifying the relevance of atmospheric blocking for co-located temperature extremes in the Northern Hemisphere on (sub-)daily time scales. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2012, 39, L12807. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Porebska, M.; Zdunek, M. Analysis of extreme temperature events in Central Europe related to high pressure blocking situations in 2001–2011. Meteorol. Z. 2013, 22, 533–540. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vine, E. Adaptation of California’s Electricity Sector to Climate Change. Clim. Chang. 2012, 111, 75–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- U.S. Department of Energy. Climate Change and the Electricity Sector: Guide for Climate Change Resilience Planning; Technical Report; U.S. Department of Energy: Washington, DC, USA, 2016.
- Bouilloud, L.; Legrand, R.; Vionnet, V.; Lac, C. Forecasting of Winter Phenomena Impacting the Energy Sector; Previsions Meteo France: Paris, France, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Park, D.; Kim, J.; Kim, J.; Chung, H.; Lee, J. Future Disaster Scenario Using Big Data: A Case Study of Extreme Cold Wave. Int. J. Des. Nat. Ecodyn. 2016, 11, 362–369. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Labandeira, X.; Linares, P. Pobreza Energética en España: Análisis Económico y Propuestas de Actuación; Technical Report; Economics for Energy: Vigo, Spain, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Ebinger, J.; Vergara, W. Climate Impacts on Energy Systems: Key Issues for Energy Sector Adaptation; Technical Report; The World Bank Group: Washington, DC, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
|Heat Wave||Cold Wave/Ice Storm|
|1947 (February), (UK) |
|1959 (Summer), Manhattan, NY (US) |
|1961 (Summer), Manhattan, NY (US) |
|9 November 1965, Northeastern US |
|23 September 1970, Northeastern US |
|1977 (Summer), NY (US) |
|1988, Seattle (US) |
|1989, Houston, Tampa, Jacksonville (US) |
|25 December 1992, Newark, NJ (US) |
|10 August 1996, West Coast (US) |
|19 November 1996, Spokane, WA (US) |
|January 1998, Eastern Canada & Northeastern US [18,19]|
|19 July 1999, West Coast (US) |
|4–5 December 2002, NC (US) |
|July 2006, CA (US) [13,21,22]|
|16 January 2007, Victoria (Australia) [23,24]|
|8 April 2008, Szczecin (Poland) [25,26]|
|27–31 January 2009, Victoria (Australia) [13,27]|
|14–16 March 2010, NJ (US) |
|6 September 2010, (Yemen) |
|2 February 2011, Southwestern US [28,29,30]|
|15 September 2011, (South Korea) |
|29–30 October 2011, Northeastern US [32,33]|
|30–31 July 2012, (India) |
|January 2014, Mid West, South Central and East Coast (US) [35,36]|
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).