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Atmosphere, Volume 6, Issue 12 (December 2015)

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Nearby Forest Fires on Ground Level Ozone Concentrations in Santiago, Chile
Atmosphere 2015, 6(12), 1926-1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6121838
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2521 | PDF Full-text (4610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On 4 and 8 January 2014, at the height of the austral summer, intense wildfires in forests and dry pastures occurred in the Melipilla sector, located about 70 km to the southwest of Santiago, the Chilean capital, affecting more than 6 million inhabitants. [...] Read more.
On 4 and 8 January 2014, at the height of the austral summer, intense wildfires in forests and dry pastures occurred in the Melipilla sector, located about 70 km to the southwest of Santiago, the Chilean capital, affecting more than 6 million inhabitants. Low level winds transported the forest fire plume towards Santiago causing a striking decrease in visibility and a marked increase in the concentration of both primary (PM10 and CO) and secondary (Ozone) pollutants in the urban atmosphere. In particular, ozone maximum concentrations in the Santiago basin reached hourly averages well above 80 ppb, the national air quality standard. This ozone increase took place at the three sampling sites considered in the present study. These large values can be explained in terms of high NOx concentrations and NO2/NO ratios in biomass burning emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Composition Observations) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Electric Field Signatures in Wideband, 3 MHz and 30 MHz of Negative Ground Flashes Pertinent to Swedish Thunderstorms
Atmosphere 2015, 6(12), 1904-1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6121837
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 4 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2249 | PDF Full-text (5663 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the electric field signatures of negative ground flashes pertinent to the Swedish thunderstorms were recorded simultaneously during the summer of 2014 using wide (up to 100 MHz) and narrow (at 3 MHz and 30 MHz as central frequencies) bandwidth antenna [...] Read more.
In this study, the electric field signatures of negative ground flashes pertinent to the Swedish thunderstorms were recorded simultaneously during the summer of 2014 using wide (up to 100 MHz) and narrow (at 3 MHz and 30 MHz as central frequencies) bandwidth antenna systems. The electric field signatures were recorded for a time duration of 250 ms. In the analysis, the whole flash was considered and a total of 98 flashes were chosen where electric field signatures of all wideband, 3 MHz and 30 MHz signals were present. It is observed that preliminary breakdown pulses are stronger radiators at 3 and 30 MHz compared to the return strokes. A comparison of our results with those of the previous studies obtained from different geographical regions clearly shows that the strength of preliminary breakdown pulses is higher in the temperate region (Sweden for instance) and is a function of latitude. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Irradiance Impact on Pollution by Integrating Nephelometer Measurements
Atmosphere 2015, 6(12), 1889-1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6121836
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1952 | PDF Full-text (6296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-wavelength integrating nephelometer measurements combined with short- (SW) and long-wave (LW) irradiance measurements were used to investigate the irradiance effects on the daily evolution of the particulate matter (PM) at the ground level, and contribute to the characterization of the land–atmosphere interaction in [...] Read more.
Three-wavelength integrating nephelometer measurements combined with short- (SW) and long-wave (LW) irradiance measurements were used to investigate the irradiance effects on the daily evolution of the particulate matter (PM) at the ground level, and contribute to the characterization of the land–atmosphere interaction in pollution dispersal. The integrating nephelometer measurements have allowed characterizing the daily changes of the PM optical and microphysical properties by the aerosol scattering coefficient (σp) and the scattering Ångström coefficient (å). We found that on a daily basis σp reached the minimum values when the irradiance reached the maximum values, since the convective motions, which favor the particle dispersion at the surface, increase with the irradiance. The å value, which is commonly used as qualitative indicator of the dominant particle size, has allowed evaluating the irradiance effects on the mean particle size distribution at the surface and revealed that the irradiance increase favors mainly the dispersion of the ground-level fine particles. Particle size-distribution measurements supported the last comment. Measurements were performed from 4 to 10 May 2015 when the study site was affected by a Saharan dust outbreak, to also evaluate the impact of long-range transported particles on the daily evolution of the ground-level particle’s properties and the SW and LW irradiance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Review and Extension of Suitability Assessment Indicators of Weather Model Output for Analyzing Decentralized Energy Systems
Atmosphere 2015, 6(12), 1871-1888; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6121835
Received: 2 October 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2493 | PDF Full-text (2697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) is gaining more and more influence in traditional energy and electricity markets in Europe and around the world. When modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution, energy systems analysts frequently use data generated by [...] Read more.
Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) is gaining more and more influence in traditional energy and electricity markets in Europe and around the world. When modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution, energy systems analysts frequently use data generated by numerical weather models as input since there is no spatial inclusive and comprehensive measurement data available. However, the suitability of such model data depends on the research questions at hand and should be inspected individually. This paper focuses on new methodologies to carry out a performance evaluation of solar irradiation data provided by a numerical weather model when investigating photovoltaic feed-in and effects on the electricity grid. Suitable approaches of time series analysis are researched from literature and applied to both model and measurement data. The findings and limits of these approaches are illustrated and a new set of validation indicators is presented. These novel indicators complement the assessment by measuring relevant key figures in energy systems analysis: e.g., gradients in energy supply, maximum values and volatility. Thus, the results of this paper contribute to the scientific community of energy systems analysts and researchers who aim at modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution using weather model data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variable Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Sources of Trace Metals and Ionic Species in PM2.5 in Guadalajara, Mexico: A Case Study during Dry Season
Atmosphere 2015, 6(12), 1858-1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6121834
Received: 4 August 2015 / Revised: 18 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1856 | PDF Full-text (1150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was conducted from May 25 to June 6, 2009 at a downtown location (Centro) and an urban sector (Miravalle) site in the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara (MZG) in Mexico. The atmospheric concentrations of PM2.5 and its elemental and inorganic components [...] Read more.
This study was conducted from May 25 to June 6, 2009 at a downtown location (Centro) and an urban sector (Miravalle) site in the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara (MZG) in Mexico. The atmospheric concentrations of PM2.5 and its elemental and inorganic components were analyzed to identify their potential sources during the warm dry season. The daily measurements of PM2.5 (24 h) exceeded the WHO (World Health Organization) air quality guidelines (25 μg·m−3). The most abundant element was found to be Fe, accounting for 59.8% and 72.2% of total metals mass in Centro and Miravalle, respectively. The enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed a more significant contribution of non-crustal sources to the elements in ambient PM2.5 in Centro than in the Miravalle site. Particularly, the highest enrichment of Cu suggested motor vehicle-related emissions in Centro. The most abundant secondary ionic species (NO3−; SO42− and NH4+) and the ratio NO3−/SO42− corroborated the important impact of mobile sources to fine particles at the sampling sites. In addition, the ion balance indicated that particles collected in Miravalle experienced neutralization processes likely due to a higher contribution of geological material. Other important contributors to PM2.5 included biomass burning by emissions transported from the forest into the city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Source Apportionment) Printed Edition available
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