Next Article in Journal
Patterns of Precipitation and Convection Occurrence over the Mediterranean Basin Derived from a Decade of Microwave Satellite Observations
Next Article in Special Issue
Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Total Gaseous Mercury in Urban Houston, TX, USA
Previous Article in Journal
Comparison of Atmospheric Travel Distances of Several PAHs Calculated by Two Fate and Transport Models (The Tool and ELPOS) with Experimental Values Derived from a Peat Bog Transect
Previous Article in Special Issue
Tracing Sources of Total Gaseous Mercury to Yongheung Island off the Coast of Korea
Open AccessArticle

Mercury Plumes in the Global Upper Troposphere Observed during Flights with the CARIBIC Observatory from May 2005 until June 2013

Atmospheric Chemistry Division, Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie (MPI), Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, D-55128 Mainz, Germany
Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), Max-Planck-Straße 1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany
Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung (TROPOS), Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany
Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, NL-3730 AE De Bilt, The Netherlands
National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), D-82230 Wessling, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current Affiliation: NRW State Agency for Nature, Environment and Consumer Protection, Recklinghausen, Germany
Current Affiliation: Meteorological Office, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 342-369;
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 28 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Mercury)
Tropospheric sections of flights with the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) observatory from May 2005 until June 2013, are investigated for the occurrence of plumes with elevated Hg concentrations. Additional information on CO, CO2, CH4, NOy, O3, hydrocarbons, halocarbons, acetone and acetonitrile enable us to attribute the plumes to biomass burning, urban/industrial sources or a mixture of both. Altogether, 98 pollution plumes with elevated Hg concentrations and CO mixing ratios were encountered, and the Hg/CO emission ratios for 49 of them could be calculated. Most of the plumes were found over East Asia, in the African equatorial region, over South America and over Pakistan and India. The plumes encountered over equatorial Africa and over South America originate predominantly from biomass burning, as evidenced by the low Hg/CO emission ratios and elevated mixing ratios of acetonitrile, CH3Cl and particle concentrations. The backward trajectories point to the regions around the Rift Valley and the Amazon Basin, with its outskirts, as the source areas. The plumes encountered over East Asia and over Pakistan and India are predominantly of urban/industrial origin, sometimes mixed with products of biomass/biofuel burning. Backward trajectories point mostly to source areas in China and northern India. The Hg/CO2 and Hg/CH4 emission ratios for several plumes are also presented and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: mercury; emission; air; pollution mercury; emission; air; pollution
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Slemr, F.; Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Brenninkmeijer, C.; Baker, A.; Schuck, T.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Riede, H.; Leedham, E.; Hermann, M.; Van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Dyroff, C.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H. Mercury Plumes in the Global Upper Troposphere Observed during Flights with the CARIBIC Observatory from May 2005 until June 2013. Atmosphere 2014, 5, 342-369.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop