Air Quality Measurements in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada Using Multisensor Mini Monitoring Stations
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Spatial Location of the AQMesh Multisensor Pods
2.2. Analysis of Co-Located Multisensor Pod Performance in Relation to the Reference Station
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Performance Comparison with the Reference Station
3.2. Impacts of Pollutant Emissions on the Local Air Quality
- If precipitation was observed for a particular day, PM2.5 was omitted from the AQHI calculations,
- If data were available for only one pollutant, the AQHI was recorded as 1, and,
- If the AQHI was calculated to be zero, then the AQHI was recorded as 1.
3.3. Analysis of Pod Network Outlier Points Using the Long-Distance Scaling Tool
3.4. Assessment of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Levels
3.5. Case Study: Effects of Northern Ontario Wildfires on Local Air Quality
- The current provincial air quality monitoring infrastructure is not sufficient in accurately assessing pollutant levels at a neighbourhood scale in Kitchener. A network of multisensor pods is a viable alternative, which requires a mobile air quality station equipped with research grade equipment to regularly verify the pods’ performance,
- The multisensor pods used in this project are reasonably accurate in the detection of local pollutants relative to the reference station, particularly O3 and PM2.5,
- Pod 1, located near a regional highway, including access routes to the highway, has the largest concentration of NO2 and PM2.5 with higher frequencies of AQHI+ exceeding those reported by MECP for both dropoff (7–10 a.m.) and pickup (3–6 p.m.) school times, suggesting that traffic may play a significant role in local air quality,
- Preliminary analysis of CO emissions, which are not detected by the reference station, highlight the ability of the multisensor pods network to detect local CO enhancements caused by local emission sources and seasonal variations. Additional studies are needed to better assess the main contributor to these enhancement events,
- Wildfire events in Northwestern Ontario were captured by the pod network at a high data resolution of 15 min. Comparing the AQHI+ values at each period in the event highlights the potential impact of local sources to add to, and exacerbate, regional effects.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Gas||WHO AQG (2021)||Ontario AAQC Limits (2020)|
|NO2||13 ppb (24 h)||100 ppb (24 h)|
|O3||50 ppb (8 h)||80 ppb (1 h)|
|PM2.5||15 µg m−3 (24 h)||28 µg m−3 (24 h)|
|SO2||15 ppb (24 h)||40 ppb (1 h)|
|Pod Number||Pod ID||UTM Coordinates||Associated Location|
|Pod 1||2450295||17 T||541107||4809056||St. Bernadette (School)|
|Pod 2||2450233||17 T||540152||4809823||JF Carmichael (School)|
|Pod 3||2450293||17 T||541824||4811246||Suddaby (School)|
|Pod 4||2450232||17 T||540000||4811398||King Edward (School) 1|
|17 T||543590||4811325||Smithson (School)|
|Pod 5||2450234||17 T||540140||4810258||Victoria Park (City Park) 2|
|Name||District||Total Extent (ha)||Date Started||Date Fire Was Officially out 1|
|RED102||Red Lake||2909.5||14 July 2021||14 September 2021|
|RED108||Red Lake||20,831.1||14 July 2021||14 September 2021|
|RED111||Red Lake||1543.1||15 July 2021||14 September 2021|
|RED114||Red Lake||35,646.6||15 July 2021||14 September 2021|
|RED120||Red Lake||3627.9||16 July 2021||14 September 2021|
|RED137||Red Lake||5779.8||18 July 2021||14 September 2021|
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Mohammed, W.; Shantz, N.; Neil, L.; Townend, T.; Adamescu, A.; Al-Abadleh, H.A. Air Quality Measurements in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada Using Multisensor Mini Monitoring Stations. Atmosphere 2022, 13, 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010083
Mohammed W, Shantz N, Neil L, Townend T, Adamescu A, Al-Abadleh HA. Air Quality Measurements in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada Using Multisensor Mini Monitoring Stations. Atmosphere. 2022; 13(1):83. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010083Chicago/Turabian Style
Mohammed, Wisam, Nicole Shantz, Lucas Neil, Tom Townend, Adrian Adamescu, and Hind A. Al-Abadleh. 2022. "Air Quality Measurements in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada Using Multisensor Mini Monitoring Stations" Atmosphere 13, no. 1: 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010083