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Article

Long-Term Observations of Schumann Resonances at Portishead (UK)

1
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
2
Bristol Industrial and Research Associates Limited (Biral), Portishead BS20 7BL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Francisco J. Pérez-Invernón and Alejandro Malagón-Romero
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010038
Received: 29 November 2021 / Revised: 19 December 2021 / Accepted: 24 December 2021 / Published: 27 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Atmospheric Electricity)
Constructive interference of lightning-generated signals in the extremely low frequency (ELF) below 100 Hz is the source of a global electromagnetic phenomenon in the Earth’s atmosphere known as Schumann Resonances (SR). SR are excited at frequencies of 7.8, 14, 20, 26, … Hz, and their diurnal and seasonal intensity variations are largely dependent on changes in the location and magnitude of the major lightning centres in Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America. In the last five decades, extensive research has focused on reconstructing the spatial and temporal evolution in global lighting activity using SR measurements, and more recently on analysing the links to climate change, transient luminous events (TLE), and biological systems. In this study, a quasi-electrostatic antenna, primarily designed as a thunderstorm warning system, is for the first time applied to measure background variability in the SR band at an urban site in Southwest England. Data collected continuously from June 2015 for a 5-year period are suitably filtered and analysed showing that SR is the dominant contribution to the fair-weather displacement current measured by the sensor in the band 10–45 Hz. Diurnal and seasonal signal amplitude variations have been found to be consistent with previous studies and show the African-European lightning centre to prevail due to the shorter source-observer distance. Also, it is shown that long-term global changes in the ocean and land temperature, and the subsequent effect on the major lightning hotspots, may be responsible for the inter-annual variability of SR intensity, indicating that the largest increase occurred during the 2015–2016 super El-Niño episode. View Full-Text
Keywords: Schumann resonance; lightning; atmospheric electricity; climate change; El-Niño; BTD-300 Schumann resonance; lightning; atmospheric electricity; climate change; El-Niño; BTD-300
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pizzuti, A.; Bennett, A.; Füllekrug, M. Long-Term Observations of Schumann Resonances at Portishead (UK). Atmosphere 2022, 13, 38. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010038

AMA Style

Pizzuti A, Bennett A, Füllekrug M. Long-Term Observations of Schumann Resonances at Portishead (UK). Atmosphere. 2022; 13(1):38. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010038

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pizzuti, Andrea, Alec Bennett, and Martin Füllekrug. 2022. "Long-Term Observations of Schumann Resonances at Portishead (UK)" Atmosphere 13, no. 1: 38. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010038

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