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Article

A CFD Approach for Risk Assessment Based on Airborne Pathogen Transmission

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14155-6343, Iran
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04107, Korea
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School of Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
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Architecture & Built Environment Department, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2QL, UK
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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PICadvanced S.A., Creative Science Park, 3830-352 Ílhavo, Portugal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Amir A. Aliabadi
Atmosphere 2021, 12(8), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12080986
Received: 28 June 2021 / Revised: 21 July 2021 / Accepted: 22 July 2021 / Published: 30 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Phenomena in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer)
The outbreak of COVID-19 necessitates developing reliable tools to derive safety measures, including safe social distance and minimum exposure time under different circumstances. Transient Eulerian–Lagrangian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have emerged as a viably fast and economical option. Nonetheless, these CFD models resolve the instantaneous distribution of droplets inside a computational domain, making them incapable of directly being used to assess the risk of infection as it depends on the total accumulated dosage of infecting viruses received by a new host within an exposure time. This study proposes a novel risk assessment model (RAM) to predict the temporal and spatial accumulative concentration of infectious exhaled droplets based on the bio-source’s exhalation profile and droplet distribution using the CFD results of respiratory events in various environmental conditions. Unlike the traditional approach in the bulk movement assessment of droplets’ outreach in a domain, every single droplet is traced inside the domain at each time step, and the total number of droplets passing through any arbitrary position of the domain is determined using a computational code. The performance of RAM is investigated for a series of case studies against various respiratory events where the horizontal and the lateral spread of risky zones are shown to temporarily vary rather than being fixed in space. The sensitivity of risky zones to ambient temperature and relative humidity was also addressed for sample cough and sneeze cases. This implies that the RAM provides crucial information required for defining safety measures such as safety distances or minimum exposure times in different environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: CFD; Eulerian–Lagrangian modeling; respiratory droplets; COVID-19; risk assessment CFD; Eulerian–Lagrangian modeling; respiratory droplets; COVID-19; risk assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Motamedi Zoka, H.; Moshfeghi, M.; Bordbar, H.; Mirzaei, P.A.; Sheikhnejad, Y. A CFD Approach for Risk Assessment Based on Airborne Pathogen Transmission. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 986. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12080986

AMA Style

Motamedi Zoka H, Moshfeghi M, Bordbar H, Mirzaei PA, Sheikhnejad Y. A CFD Approach for Risk Assessment Based on Airborne Pathogen Transmission. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(8):986. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12080986

Chicago/Turabian Style

Motamedi Zoka, Hamid, Mohammad Moshfeghi, Hadi Bordbar, Parham A. Mirzaei, and Yahya Sheikhnejad. 2021. "A CFD Approach for Risk Assessment Based on Airborne Pathogen Transmission" Atmosphere 12, no. 8: 986. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12080986

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