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Article

The Combined Effect of Ozone and Aerosols on Erythemal Irradiance in an Extremely Low Ozone Event during May 2020

1
Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, GR15236 Athens, Greece
2
Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR15236 Athens, Greece
3
Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, GR11527 Athens, Greece
4
Physicalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland
5
Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing (IAASARS), National Observatory of Athens, GR15236 Athens, Greece
6
Research Centre for Atmospheric Physics and Climatology, Academy of Athens, GR15236 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2021, 12(2), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020145
Received: 20 October 2020 / Revised: 27 November 2020 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in the Composition of the Atmosphere)
In this study we focus on measurements and modeled UV index in the region of Athens, Greece, during a low ozone event. During the period of 12–19 May 2020, total ozone column (TOC) showed extremely low values, 35–55 Dobson Units (up to 15%) decrease from the climatic mean (being lower than the −2σ). This condition favors the increase of UV erythemal irradiance, since stratospheric ozone is the most important attenuator at the UVB spectral region. Simultaneously, an intrusion of Saharan dust aerosols in the region has masked a large part of the low ozone effect on UV irradiance. In order to investigate the event, we have used spectral solar irradiance measurements from the Precision Solar Radiometer (PSR), TOC from the Brewer spectrophotometer, and Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) calculations. Model calculations of the UV Index (UVI) showed an increase of ~30% compared to the long-term normal UVI due to the low TOC while at the same time and for particular days, aerosols masked this effect by ~20%. The RTM has been used to investigate the response in the UV spectral region of these variations at different solar zenith angles (SZAs). Spectra simulated with the RTM have been compared to measured ones and an average difference of ~2% was found. The study points out the importance of accurate measurements or forecasts of both ozone and aerosols when deriving UVI under unusual low ozone–high aerosol conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultraviolet; ozone; aerosol; UV Index; erythemal; PSR ultraviolet; ozone; aerosol; UV Index; erythemal; PSR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Raptis, I.-P.; Eleftheratos, K.; Kazadzis, S.; Kosmopoulos, P.; Papachristopoulou, K.; Solomos, S. The Combined Effect of Ozone and Aerosols on Erythemal Irradiance in an Extremely Low Ozone Event during May 2020. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 145. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020145

AMA Style

Raptis I-P, Eleftheratos K, Kazadzis S, Kosmopoulos P, Papachristopoulou K, Solomos S. The Combined Effect of Ozone and Aerosols on Erythemal Irradiance in an Extremely Low Ozone Event during May 2020. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(2):145. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020145

Chicago/Turabian Style

Raptis, Ioannis-Panagiotis; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Kazadzis, Stelios; Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis; Papachristopoulou, Kyriakoula; Solomos, Stavros. 2021. "The Combined Effect of Ozone and Aerosols on Erythemal Irradiance in an Extremely Low Ozone Event during May 2020" Atmosphere 12, no. 2: 145. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020145

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