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Article

Simulation of the Scalar Transport above and within the Amazon Forest Canopy

1
National Institute for Amazonian Research (INPA)—CLIAMB, Manaus 69067-375, AM, Brazil
2
Department of Physics, Federal Institute of Pará (IFPA), Belém 66093-020, PA, Brazil
3
Institute of Engineering and Geosciences, Federal University of Western Pará (UFOPA), Santarém 68040-255, PA, Brazil
4
National Institute for Amazonian Research (INPA)—ATTO Project, Manaus 69067-375, AM, Brazil
5
National Institute for Space Research (INPE), São José dos Campos 12630-000, SP, Brazil
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EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental, Belém 66095-903, PA, Brazil
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National Institute for Amazonian Research (INPA)—LBA, Manaus 69067-375, AM, Brazil
8
Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany
9
Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate—CNR, 10133 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jan-Peter Schulz
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12121631
Received: 30 October 2021 / Revised: 28 November 2021 / Accepted: 30 November 2021 / Published: 7 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Surface and its Interaction with the Atmosphere)
The parallelized large-eddy simulation model (PALM) was used to understand better the turbulent exchanges of a passive scalar above and within a forested region located in the central Amazon. Weak (2 ms1) and strong (6 ms1) wind conditions were simulated. A passive scalar source was introduced to the forest floor for both simulations. The simulations reproduced the main characteristics of the turbulent flow and of the passive scalar transport between the forest and the atmosphere. Noteworthily, strong and weak wind conditions presented different turbulence structures that drove different patterns of scalar exchange both within and above the forest. These results show how passive scalar concentration is influenced by the wind speed at the canopy top. Additionally, higher wind speeds are related to stronger sweep and ejection regimes, generating more intense plumes that are able to reduce the passive scalar concentration inside the forest canopy. This work was the first that used PALM to investigate scalar transport between the Amazon rainforest and the atmosphere. View Full-Text
Keywords: Amazon forest; turbulent exchange; large-eddy simulation; passive scalar Amazon forest; turbulent exchange; large-eddy simulation; passive scalar
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MDPI and ACS Style

Serra-Neto, E.M.; Martins, H.S.; Dias-Júnior, C.Q.; Santana, R.A.; Brondani, D.V.; Manzi, A.O.; de Araújo, A.C.; Teixeira, P.R.; Sörgel, M.; Mortarini, L. Simulation of the Scalar Transport above and within the Amazon Forest Canopy. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 1631. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12121631

AMA Style

Serra-Neto EM, Martins HS, Dias-Júnior CQ, Santana RA, Brondani DV, Manzi AO, de Araújo AC, Teixeira PR, Sörgel M, Mortarini L. Simulation of the Scalar Transport above and within the Amazon Forest Canopy. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(12):1631. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12121631

Chicago/Turabian Style

Serra-Neto, Edivaldo M., Hardiney S. Martins, Cléo Q. Dias-Júnior, Raoni A. Santana, Daiane V. Brondani, Antônio O. Manzi, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Paulo R. Teixeira, Matthias Sörgel, and Luca Mortarini. 2021. "Simulation of the Scalar Transport above and within the Amazon Forest Canopy" Atmosphere 12, no. 12: 1631. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12121631

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