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Article

Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Elemental Fluxes in the Soil and Exchanges with the Atmosphere in Australian Tropical, Temperate, and Arid Wetlands

1
Laboratory for Advanced Environmental Engineering Research, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Bld. J05, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
2
Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2021, 12(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12010042
Received: 23 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 30 December 2020
Australian ecosystems, particularly wetlands, are facing new and extreme threats due to climate change, land use, and other human interventions. However, more fundamental knowledge is required to understand how nutrient turnover in wetlands is affected. In this study, we deployed a mechanistic biogeochemical model of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) cycles at 0.25× 0.25 spatial resolution across wetlands in Australia. Our modeling was used to assess nutrient inputs to soil, elemental nutrient fluxes across the soil organic and mineral pools, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in different climatic areas. In the decade 2008–2017, we estimated an average annual emission of 5.12 Tg-CH4, 90.89 Tg-CO2, and 2.34 × 102 Tg-N2O. Temperate wetlands in Australia have three times more N2O emissions than tropical wetlands as a result of fertilization, despite similar total area extension. Tasmania wetlands have the highest areal GHG emission rates. C fluxes in soil depend strongly on hydroclimatic factors; they are mainly controlled by anaerobic respiration in temperate and tropical regions and by aerobic respiration in arid regions. In contrast, N and S fluxes are mostly governed by plant uptake regardless of the region and season. The new knowledge from this study may help design conservation and adaptation plans to climate change and better protect the Australian wetland ecosystem. View Full-Text
Keywords: wetlands modeling; GHG; nutrient fluxes; Australia; C cycle; N cycle; S cycle wetlands modeling; GHG; nutrient fluxes; Australia; C cycle; N cycle; S cycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pasut, C.; Tang, F.H.M.; Hamilton, D.P.; Maggi, F. Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Elemental Fluxes in the Soil and Exchanges with the Atmosphere in Australian Tropical, Temperate, and Arid Wetlands. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12010042

AMA Style

Pasut C, Tang FHM, Hamilton DP, Maggi F. Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Elemental Fluxes in the Soil and Exchanges with the Atmosphere in Australian Tropical, Temperate, and Arid Wetlands. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(1):42. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12010042

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pasut, Chiara, Fiona H.M. Tang, David P. Hamilton, and Federico Maggi. 2021. "Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Elemental Fluxes in the Soil and Exchanges with the Atmosphere in Australian Tropical, Temperate, and Arid Wetlands" Atmosphere 12, no. 1: 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12010042

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