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Article

Characteristics of Orographic Rain Drop-Size Distribution at Cherrapunji, Northeast India

1
Faculty of Science and Technology, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520, Japan
2
Faculty of Education, Kagawa University, Takamatsu 760-0016, Japan
3
Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Pune 411 008, India
4
Department of Geography, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793 002, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080777
Received: 23 June 2020 / Revised: 18 July 2020 / Accepted: 20 July 2020 / Published: 23 July 2020
The rain drop size distribution (DSD) at Cherrapunji, Northeast India was observed by a laser optical disdrometer Parsivel 2 from May to October 2017; this town is known for the world’s heaviest orographic rainfall recorded. The disdrometer showed a 30% underestimation of the rainfall amount, compared with a collocated rain gauge. The observed DSD had a number of drops with a mean normalized intercept log 10 N w > 4.0 for all rain rate categories, ranging from <5 to >80 mm h 1 , comparable to tropical oceanic DSDs. These results differ from those of tropical oceanic DSDs, in that data with a larger N w were confined to the stratiform side of a stratiform/convective separation line proposed by Bringi et al. (2009). A large number of small drops is important for quantitative precipitation estimates by in-situ radar and satellites, because it tends to miss or underestimate precipitation amounts. The large number of small drops, as defined by the second principal component (>+1.5) while using the principal component analysis approach of Dolan et al. (2018), was rare for the pre-monsoon season, but was prevalent during the monsoon season, accounting for 16% (19%) of the accumulated rainfall (precipitation period); it tended to appear over weak active spells or the beginning of active spells of intraseasonal variation during the monsoon season. View Full-Text
Keywords: rain drop size distribution; orographic rainfall; Indian monsoon; large number of small drops; seasonal variation; warm rainfall rain drop size distribution; orographic rainfall; Indian monsoon; large number of small drops; seasonal variation; warm rainfall
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MDPI and ACS Style

Murata, F.; Terao, T.; Chakravarty, K.; Syiemlieh, H.J.; Cajee, L. Characteristics of Orographic Rain Drop-Size Distribution at Cherrapunji, Northeast India. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 777. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080777

AMA Style

Murata F, Terao T, Chakravarty K, Syiemlieh HJ, Cajee L. Characteristics of Orographic Rain Drop-Size Distribution at Cherrapunji, Northeast India. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(8):777. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080777

Chicago/Turabian Style

Murata, Fumie, Toru Terao, Kaustav Chakravarty, Hiambok J. Syiemlieh, and Laitpharlang Cajee. 2020. "Characteristics of Orographic Rain Drop-Size Distribution at Cherrapunji, Northeast India" Atmosphere 11, no. 8: 777. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080777

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