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Open AccessArticle

Possible Effects of Greenhouse Gases to Ozone Profiles and DNA Active UV-B Irradiance at Ground Level

1
Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
2
Center for Environmental Effects on Health, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
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Research Centre for Atmospheric Physics and Climatology, Academy of Athens, 10680 Athens, Greece
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Navarino Environmental Observatory (N.E.O), 24001 Messinia, Greece
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Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
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Aosta Valley Regional Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA), 11020 Saint-Christophe, Italy
7
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, 82234 Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
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Cicero Center for International Climate Research (CICERO), 0318 Oslo, Norway
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Laboratoire Atmosphère Milieux Observations Spatiales, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 78284 Guyancourt, France
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Deutscher Wetterdienst, 82383 Hohenpeißenberg, Germany
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Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80301, USA
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Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8518 - Laboratoire d’Optique Atmosphérique, F-59000 Lille, France
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Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Wrightwood, CA 92397, USA
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National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA), 9377 Lauder, New Zealand
15
Center for Environmental Quality, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(3), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11030228
Received: 1 February 2020 / Accepted: 18 February 2020 / Published: 26 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in the Composition of the Atmosphere)
In this paper, we compare model calculations of ozone profiles and their variability for the period 1998 to 2016 with satellite and lidar profiles at five ground-based stations. Under the investigation is the temporal impact of the stratospheric halogen reduction (chemical processes) and increase in greenhouse gases (i.e., global warming) on stratospheric ozone changes. Attention is given to the effect of greenhouse gases on ultraviolet-B radiation at ground level. Our chemistry transport and chemistry climate models (Oslo CTM3 and EMAC CCM) indicate that (a) the effect of halogen reduction is maximized in ozone recovery at 1–7 hPa and observed at all lidar stations; and (b) significant impact of greenhouse gases on stratospheric ozone recovery is predicted after the year 2050. Our study indicates that solar ultraviolet-B irradiance that produces DNA damage would increase after the year 2050 by +1.3% per decade. Such change in the model is driven by a significant decrease in cloud cover due to the evolution of greenhouse gases in the future and an insignificant trend in total ozone. If our estimates prove to be true, then it is likely that the process of climate change will overwhelm the effect of ozone recovery on UV-B irradiance in midlatitudes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ozone; UV-B irradiance; halogens; greenhouse gases; effects ozone; UV-B irradiance; halogens; greenhouse gases; effects
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Eleftheratos, K.; Kapsomenakis, J.; Zerefos, C.S.; Bais, A.F.; Fountoulakis, I.; Dameris, M.; Jöckel, P.; Haslerud, A.S.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Steinbrecht, W.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Brogniez, C.; Leblanc, T.; Liley, J.B.; Querel, R.; Swart, D.P.J. Possible Effects of Greenhouse Gases to Ozone Profiles and DNA Active UV-B Irradiance at Ground Level. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 228.

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