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Open AccessArticle

Changes in Fog, Ice Fog, and Low Visibility in the Hudson Bay Region: Impacts on Aviation

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Department of Physical & Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4, Canada
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Department of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough,1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020186
Received: 15 December 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 10 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observation, Simulation and Predictability of Fog )
Fog and low visibility present a natural hazard for aviation in the Hudson Bay region. Sixteen communities on the eastern and western shores of Hudson and James Bays, Canada, were selected for fog, ice fog, and low visibility statistical analyses for a range of 21 to 62 year time series. Both fog hours and ice fog hours were found to be in general decline, with some locations experiencing statistically significant declines. Spatial asymmetries for fog and ice fog were observed among the various areas within the Hudson Bay region. The more northerly locations in this study experienced statistically significant declines in fog hours while the southerly locations’ declines were not significant. Fog was significantly declining in some western Hudson Bay locations during spring and fall and in James Bay during winter and summer, but minimal trends were observed in eastern Hudson Bay. For ice fog hours, all of the locations in the western shore of Hudson Bay experienced a significant decline in winter while only one-third of the locations in eastern shores were found to be declining significantly during winter. Blowing snow, snow, ice and fog were the leading causes for reduced and low visibilities at the majority of the locations. Other factors such as rain contributed a minor role to low visibility.
Keywords: fog observation; time series analysis; spatial variability; subarctic; flight safety; airport fog observation; time series analysis; spatial variability; subarctic; flight safety; airport
MDPI and ACS Style

Leung, A.C.; Gough, W.A.; Butler, K.A. Changes in Fog, Ice Fog, and Low Visibility in the Hudson Bay Region: Impacts on Aviation. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 186.

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