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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Arctic Oscillation on Frequency of Wintertime Fog Days in Eastern China

1
Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education (KLME)/Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environmental Change (ILCEC)/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters (CIC-FEMD), Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020162
Received: 11 December 2019 / Revised: 19 January 2020 / Accepted: 28 January 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observation, Simulation and Predictability of Fog )
The influence of Arctic Oscillation (AO) on the frequency of wintertime fog days in eastern China is studied based on the winter AO index, the wintertime fog-day data of national stations in China, and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data from 1954 to 2007. The results show that heavy fog and light fog are more likely to occur during winter in eastern China with the strong interannual variability. During the winter with the positive-phase AO, there are more days of heavy fog in North China but less in South China, while light fog days become more in the whole of eastern China. It is mainly because that when AO is in the positive phase, the pressure in the polar region decreases at 500 hPa; the pressure in East Asia increases anomalously; the East Asian trough decreases; and the low-level westerly jet moves northward, preventing the northwesterly cold air from moving southward. Therefore, the whole eastern China gets warmer and wetter air, and there are more light fog days with the enhanced water vapor. However, the atmosphere merely becomes more towards unstable in South China, where the precipitation increases but the heavy fog days decreases. Nevertheless, heavy fog days increase with the water vapor in North China because of moving towards a stable atmosphere, which is formed by the anomalous downdrafts north of the precipitation center in South China. When AO is in the negative phase, the situation is basically opposite to that in the positive phase, but the variations of the corresponding fog days and circulations are weaker than those in the AO-positive-phase winter, which may be related to the nonlinear effect of AO on climate.
Keywords: arctic oscillation (AO); fog days; eastern China arctic oscillation (AO); fog days; eastern China
MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, P.; Tang, M.; Yu, H.; Zhang, Y. Influence of Arctic Oscillation on Frequency of Wintertime Fog Days in Eastern China. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 162.

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