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Open AccessArticle

Direct Numerical Simulation of Fog: The Sensitivity of a Dissipation Phase to Environmental Conditions

by Mona Karimi
Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
Current address: NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010012
Received: 21 November 2019 / Revised: 13 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 21 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observation, Simulation and Predictability of Fog )
The sensitivity of fog dissipation to the environmental changes in radiation, liquid-water lapse rate, free tropospheric temperature and relative humidity was studied through numerical experiments designed based on the 2007-Paris Fog observations. In particular, we examine how much of the stratocumulus-thinning mechanism can be extended to the near-surface clouds or fog. When the free troposphere is warmed relative to the reference case, fog-top descends and become denser. Reducing the longwave radiative cooling via a more emissive free troposphere favors thickening the physical depth of fog, unlike cloud-thinning in a stratocumulus cloud. Drying the free troposphere allows fog thinning and promotes fog dissipation while sustaining the entrainment rate. The numerical simulation results suggest that the contribution of entrainment drying is more effective than the contribution of entrainment warming yielding the reduction in liquid water path tendency and promoting the onset of fog depletion relative to the reference case studied here. These sensitivity experiments indicate that the fog lifting mechanism can enhance the effect of the inward mixing at the fog top. However, to promote fog dissipation, an inward mixing mechanism only cannot facilitate removing humidity in the fog layer unless a sufficient entrainment rate is simultaneously sustained. View Full-Text
Keywords: numerical simulation of fog; liquid water path budget; fog dissipation; fog processes study numerical simulation of fog; liquid water path budget; fog dissipation; fog processes study
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Karimi, M. Direct Numerical Simulation of Fog: The Sensitivity of a Dissipation Phase to Environmental Conditions. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 12.

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