Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Air Quality in Korea
2.1. Site Description
2.2. COVID-19 Data
2.3. Air Quality Data
- Ip = the index for pollutant p;
- Cp = the truncated concentration of pollutant p;
- BPHi = the concentration breakpoint that is greater than or equal to Cp;
- BPLo = the concentration breakpoint that is less than or equal to Cp;
- IHi = the AQI value corresponding to BPHi;
- ILo = the AQI value corresponding to BPLo.
2.4. Data Analysis
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. COVID-19 Outbreak and Social Distancing in Korea
3.2. Comparison of Air Pollutants
3.2.1. Concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10
3.2.2. Concentrations of Gaseous Pollutants
3.3. Changes in Air Quality from Social Distancing
Conflicts of Interest
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|Category||Level of Social Distancing|
|Level 1||Level 2||Level 3|
|Personal hygiene||Wash your hands carefully for more than 30 s with soap,|
Maintain at least 1~2 m distance with others
|Gatherings, events, etc.||Allowed, recommended to respect the sanitary measures||All private and public indoor meetings of 50 or more and outdoor meetings of over 100 are banned||All private and public indoor and outdoor meetings of over 10 are banned|
|Sport events||Limited the number of spectators||No spectators||Banned|
|Public facilities||Allowed (if necessary, they can be suspended)||Suspended||Suspended|
|Private facilities||Allowed (high-risk places can be suspended)||All high-risk places are closed, and sanitary measures are reinforced.||All high-risk places are closed, and sanitary measures are reinforced.|
|Schools, kindergartens||Open and distance learning||Open and distance learning (limit the numbers of students)||Distance learning or suspended|
|Public institutions and companies||Teleworking is recommended (one-third of all the employees)||Teleworking is recommended (half of all employees)||Teleworking is obligated except essential members|
|Private institutions and companies||Flexible teleworking||Teleworking is recommended||Teleworking is obligated except essential members|
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Seo, J.H.; Jeon, H.W.; Sung, U.J.; Sohn, J.-R. Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Air Quality in Korea. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 1137. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101137
Seo JH, Jeon HW, Sung UJ, Sohn J-R. Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Air Quality in Korea. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(10):1137. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101137Chicago/Turabian Style
Seo, Ji Hoon, Hyun Woo Jeon, Ui Jae Sung, and Jong-Ryeul Sohn. 2020. "Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Air Quality in Korea" Atmosphere 11, no. 10: 1137. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101137