The Mediterranean region is one of the regions in the world that is most vulnerable to the impact of imminent climate change. In particular, climate change has an adverse effect on both the ecosystem and socioeconomic system, influencing water availability for both human and environmental purposes. The most endangered water resources are along the coasts and on islands since they have relatively small volumes and are intensively exploited. We analyzed the time series of air temperature and precipitation measured at four meteorological stations (Komiža, Palagruža, Lastovo, and Biševo) located on small islands in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea in this study. The investigated time series extend from the 1950s to the present, being contemporaneous for approximately 50 years. Despite possessing discontinuity, they can be considered as representative for assessing climate change and variability in the scattered environment of the Croatian islands. The results showed increasing trends in the annual air temperature, while the annual cumulative precipitation did not show significant variations. In addition, the analyses of the monthly air temperature showed that statistically significant increasing trends occurred from April to August, suggesting a more severe impact during these months. These results are in accordance with regional and local studies and climate models. Although the climate variability during the analyzed period can be considered as moderate, the impact on water resources could be severe due to the combined effect of the increase in air temperature during warm periods and the intensive exploitation for tourism purposes.
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