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Open AccessArticle

Sodium Resonance Wind-Temperature Lidar at PFRR: Initial Observations and Performance

1
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
2
GATS, Boulder, CO 80301, USA
3
Geophysical Institute and Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010098
Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 31 December 2019 / Accepted: 1 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Atmospheric Lidar Remote Sensing)
A narrowband sodium resonance wind-temperature lidar (SRWTL) has been deployed at Poker Flat Research Range, Chatanika, Alaska (PFRR, 65° N, 147° W). Based on the Weber narrowband SRWTL, the PFRR SRWTL transmitter was upgraded with a state-of-the-art solid-state tunable diode laser as the seed laser. The PFRR SRWTL currently makes simultaneous measurements in the zenith and 20° off-zenith towards the north with two transmitted beams and two telescopes. Initial results for both nighttime and daytime measurements are presented. We review the performance of the PFRR SRWTL in terms of seven previous and currently operating SRWTLs. The transmitted power from the pulsed dye amplifier (PDA) is comparable with other SRWTL systems (900 mW). However, while the efficiency of the seeding and frequency shifting is comparable to other SRWTLs the efficiency of the pumping is lower. The uncertainties of temperature and wind measurements induced by photon noise at the peak of the layer with a 5 min, 1 km resolution are estimated to be ~1 K and 2 m/s for nighttime conditions, and 10 K and 6 m/s for daytime conditions. The relative efficiency of the zenith receiver is comparable to other SRWTLs (90–97%), while the efficiency of the north off-zenith receiver needs further optimization. An upgrade of the PFRR SRWTL to a full three-beam system with zenith, northward and eastward measurements is in progress. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium resonance wind-temperature lidar; solid-state diode laser; Doppler-free spectroscopy; system efficiency; mesopause; upper mesosphere; lower thermosphere sodium resonance wind-temperature lidar; solid-state diode laser; Doppler-free spectroscopy; system efficiency; mesopause; upper mesosphere; lower thermosphere
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Li, J.; Williams, B.P.; Alspach, J.H.; Collins, R.L. Sodium Resonance Wind-Temperature Lidar at PFRR: Initial Observations and Performance. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 98.

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