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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Ozone and Clouds on Temporal Variability of Surface UV Radiation and UV Resources over Northern Eurasia Derived from Measurements and Modeling

1
Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1119991 Moscow, Russia
2
Russian State Hydrometeorological University, Malookhtinsky Ave., 98, 195196 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
3
Institute of Numerical Mathematics RAS, Gubkina str., 8, 119991 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010059
Received: 25 November 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 23 December 2019 / Published: 2 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Evolution in the Past and Future)
Temporal variability in erythemal radiation over Northern Eurasia (40°–80° N, 10° W–180° E) due to total ozone column (X) and cloudiness was assessed by using retrievals from ERA-Interim reanalysis, TOMS/OMI satellite measurements, and INM-RSHU chemistry–climate model (CCM) for the 1979–2015 period. For clear-sky conditions during spring and summer, consistent trends in erythemal daily doses (Eery) up to +3%/decade, attributed to decreases in X, were calculated from the three datasets. Model experiments suggest that anthropogenic emissions of ozone-depleting substances were the largest contributor to Eery trends, while volcanic aerosol and changes in sea surface temperature also played an important role. For all-sky conditions, Eery trends, calculated from the ERA-Interim and TOMS/OMI data over the territory of Eastern Europe, Siberia and Northeastern Asia, were significantly larger (up to +5–8%/decade) due to a combination of decrease in ozone and cloudiness. In contrast, all-sky maximum trends in Eery, calculated from the CCM results, were only +3–4%/decade. While Eery trends for Northern Eurasia were generally positive, negative trends were observed in July over central Arctic regions due to an increase in cloudiness. Finally, changes in the ultraviolet (UV) resources (characteristics of UV radiation for beneficial (vitamin D production) or adverse (sunburn) effects on human health) were assessed. When defining a “UV optimum” condition with the best balance in Eery for human health, the observed increases in Eery led to a noticeable reduction of the area with UV optimum for skin types 1 and 2, especially in April. In contrast, in central Arctic regions, decreases in Eery in July resulted in a change from “UV excess” to “UV optimum” conditions for skin types 2 and 3. View Full-Text
Keywords: total ozone content; cloudiness; erythemal radiation; trend; chemical–climate model; ERA-Interim reanalysis; Northern Eurasia; UV resources total ozone content; cloudiness; erythemal radiation; trend; chemical–climate model; ERA-Interim reanalysis; Northern Eurasia; UV resources
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chubarova, N.E.; Pastukhova, A.S.; Zhdanova, E.Y.; Volpert, E.V.; Smyshlyaev, S.P.; Galin, V.Y. Effects of Ozone and Clouds on Temporal Variability of Surface UV Radiation and UV Resources over Northern Eurasia Derived from Measurements and Modeling. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 59.

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