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Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Urban CO2 Measurement and Source Attribution in Munich Based on TDLAS-WMS and Trajectory Analysis

1
Professorship of Environmental Sensing and Modeling, Technical University of Munich, 80333 Munich, Germany
2
Professorship of Ecoclimatology, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
3
Leibniz Supercomputing Center (Leibniz-Rechenzentrum, LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 85748 Garching, Germany
4
Institute for Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstr. 2a, 85748 Garching, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010058
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 22 December 2019 / Accepted: 25 December 2019 / Published: 2 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions mainly come from cities and their surrounding areas. Thus, continuous measuring of CO2 in urban areas is of great significance to studying human CO2 emissions. We developed a compact, precise, and self-calibrated in-situ CO2/H2O sensor based on TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy), WMS (wavelength modulation spectroscopy), and VCSEL (vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser). Multi-harmonic detection is utilized to improve the precision of both measurements to 0.02 ppm for CO2 and 1.0 ppm for H2O. Using the developed sensor, we measured CO2 concentrations continuously in the city center of Munich, Germany, from February 2018 to January 2019. Urban CO2 concentrations are strongly affected by several factors, including vegetation photosynthesis and respiration (VPR), planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, and anthropogenic activities. In order to further understand the anthropogenic contribution in terms of CO2 sources, the HySPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model was applied to calculate six-hour backward trajectories. We analyzed the winter CO2 with the trajectory clustering, PSCF (potential source contribution function), and CWT (concentration weighted trajectory) methods, and found that local emissions have a great impact on urban CO2 concentration, with main emission sources in the north and southeast directions of the measurement site. In situations with an uneven trajectory distribution, PSCF proves somewhat superior in predicting the potential emission sources compared to CWT. View Full-Text
Keywords: TDLAS-WMS sensor; CO2 in urban areas; HySPLIT model; PSCF; CWT TDLAS-WMS sensor; CO2 in urban areas; HySPLIT model; PSCF; CWT
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Lan, L.; Ghasemifard, H.; Yuan, Y.; Hachinger, S.; Zhao, X.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Bi, X.; Bai, Y.; Menzel, A.; Chen, J. Assessment of Urban CO2 Measurement and Source Attribution in Munich Based on TDLAS-WMS and Trajectory Analysis. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 58.

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