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Seasonal Analysis of Cloud-To-Ground Lightning Flash Activity in the Western Antarctica

Space Science Centre (ANGKASA), Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia
Atmospheric and Lightning Research Laboratory, Centre for Telecommunication Research and Innovation (CeTRI), Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektronik dan Kejuruteraan Komputer, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal, Melaka 76100, Malaysia
Centre of Advanced Electronic and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia
Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia
Institute of High Voltage and High Current (IVAT), School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
Department of Informatics, Universitas Pembangunan Jaya, South Tangerang, Banten 15413, Indonesia
Instituto Antartico Argentino (DNA), Cerrito, Buenos Aires 1248, Argentina
Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (UBA-CONICET), Buenos Aires 1053, Argentina
Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires 1053, Argentina
Ångström Laboratory, Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 744;
Received: 14 October 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 24 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
This paper presents a seasonal analysis of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash activity in the Western Antarctica using a lightning detector sensor installed at the Carlini Base station. Data obtained from the detection system between February and December 2017 were analyzed. Three common locations and areas of composite active thunderstorms (labelled storm regions A, B, and C) were detected by the sensor within a 1000 km radius from the station. Storm region A was located to the northwest (N/W) of the station and covered the Amundsen/Bellingshausen Sea (ABS), whereas storm region C was located on the southeastern (S/E) side of the station over the Weddell Sea (WS), with distances ranging from 500 to 800 km and bearings of 270° to 360° and 90° to 180, respectively. Storm region B was located around 100 km from the station with the bearings of stroke taken from 0° to 360°. A total of 2,019,923 flashes were detected, of which 43.01% were positive CG and 56.99% were negative CG flashes. The analysis revealed that more than 96% of the CG flashes (both positive CG and negative CG) were produced during the summer and fall seasons as compared with less than 4% during the winter and spring seasons. Most detected lightning strokes (>85%) were located in the central area around the station produced by storm region B and less than 15% were produced by storm region A and storm region C, located in the ocean areas over the Amundsen/Bellingshausen Sea and the Weddell Sea.
Keywords: Antarctic; cloud-to-ground; seasonal analysis; lightning Antarctic; cloud-to-ground; seasonal analysis; lightning
MDPI and ACS Style

Yusop, N.; Ahmad, M.R.; Abdullah, M.; Mohd Esa, M.R.; Mohammad, S.A.; Suparta, W.; Gulisano, A.M.; Cooray, V. Seasonal Analysis of Cloud-To-Ground Lightning Flash Activity in the Western Antarctica. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 744.

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