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Urban Areas and Urban–Rural Contrasts under Climate Change: What Does the EURO-CORDEX Ensemble Tell Us?—Investigating Near Surface Humidity in Berlin and Its Surroundings

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Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), Chilehaus, Fischertwiete 1, 20095 Hamburg, Germany
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Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Universitätsallee 1, 21335 Lüneburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120730
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Urban Areas on Climate Change Conditions)
Climate change will impact urban areas. Decision makers need useful climate information to adapt adequately. This research aims to improve understanding of changes in moisture and temperature projected under climate change in Berlin compared to its surroundings. Simulations for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario from the European Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (EURO-CORDEX) 0.11° are analyzed, showing a difference in moisture and temperature variables between Berlin and its surroundings. The running mean over 30 years shows a divergence throughout the twenty-first century for relative humidity between Berlin and its surroundings. Under this scenario, Berlin gets drier over time. The Mann-Kendall test quantifies a robust decreasing trend in relative humidity for the multi-model ensemble throughout the twenty-first century. The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test for relative humidity indicates a robust climate change signal in Berlin. It is drier and warmer in Berlin compared to its surroundings for all months with the largest difference existing in summer. Additionally, the change in humidity for the period 2070–2099 compared to 1971–2000 is larger in the summer months. This study presents results to better understand near surface moisture change and related variables under long-term climate change in urban areas compared to their rural surroundings using a regional climate multi-model ensemble.
Keywords: urban climate change; urban–rural interactions; humidity; Berlin; regional climate modeling; EURO-CORDEX urban climate change; urban–rural interactions; humidity; Berlin; regional climate modeling; EURO-CORDEX
MDPI and ACS Style

Langendijk, G.S.; Rechid, D.; Jacob, D. Urban Areas and Urban–Rural Contrasts under Climate Change: What Does the EURO-CORDEX Ensemble Tell Us?—Investigating Near Surface Humidity in Berlin and Its Surroundings . Atmosphere 2019, 10, 730.

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