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Long-Term Changes of Source Apportioned Particle Number Concentrations in a Metropolitan Area of the Northeastern United States

1
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
2
Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
3
Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402, USA
4
Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
5
Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10010027
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Sources Apportionment)
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Abstract

The northeastern United States has experienced significant emissions reductions in the last two decades leading to a decrease in PM2.5, major gaseous pollutants (SO2, CO, NOx) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) concentrations. Emissions controls were implemented for coal-fired power plants, and new heavy-duty diesel trucks were equipped with particle traps and NOx control systems, and ultralow sulfur content is mandatory for both road and non-road diesel as well as residual oil for space heating. At the same time, economic changes also influenced the trends in air pollutants. Investigating the influence of these changes on ultrafine particle sources is fundamental to determine the success of the mitigation strategies and to plan future actions. Particle size distributions have been measured in Rochester, NY since January 2002. The particle sources were investigated with positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the size distributions (11–470 nm) and measured criteria pollutants during five periods (2002–2003, 2004–2007, 2008–2010, 2011–2013, and 2014–2016) and three seasons (winter, summer, and transition). Monthly, weekly, and hourly source contributions patterns were evaluated. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrafine particles; source apportionment; long-term trends; air pollution ultrafine particles; source apportionment; long-term trends; air pollution
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Squizzato, S.; Masiol, M.; Emami, F.; Chalupa, D.C.; Utell, M.J.; Rich, D.Q.; Hopke, P.K. Long-Term Changes of Source Apportioned Particle Number Concentrations in a Metropolitan Area of the Northeastern United States. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 27.

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