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Genes 2018, 9(6), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9060304

Membrane Proteins in Trypanosomatids Involved in Ca2+ Homeostasis and Signaling

1
Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
2
Department of Cellular Biology and Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Proteins in Parasitic Protozoa)
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Abstract

Calcium ion (Ca2+) serves as a second messenger for a variety of cell functions in trypanosomes. Several proteins in the plasma membrane, acidocalcisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria are involved in its homeostasis and in cell signaling roles. The plasma membrane has a Ca2+ channel for its uptake and a plasma membrane-type Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) for its efflux. A similar PMCA is also located in acidocalcisomes, acidic organelles that are the primary Ca2+ store and that possess an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) for Ca2+ efflux. Their mitochondria possess a mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex (MCUC) for Ca2+ uptake and a Ca2+/H+ exchanger for Ca2+ release. The endoplasmic reticulum has a sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) for Ca2+ uptake but no Ca2+ release mechanism has been identified. Additionally, the trypanosomatid genomes contain other membrane proteins that could potentially bind calcium and await further characterization. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium; Trypanosoma; Leishmania; mitochondria; acidocalcisome calcium; Trypanosoma; Leishmania; mitochondria; acidocalcisome
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Ramakrishnan, S.; Docampo, R. Membrane Proteins in Trypanosomatids Involved in Ca2+ Homeostasis and Signaling. Genes 2018, 9, 304.

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