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Genes 2018, 9(6), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9060272

Reorganization of the Y Chromosomes Enhances Divergence in Israeli Mole Rats Nannospalax ehrenbergi (Spalacidae, Rodentia): Comparative Analysis of Meiotic and Mitotic Chromosomes

1
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, Russia
2
Institute of Evolution, Haifa University, Haifa 31905, Israel
3
Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119334, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolutionary Life Cycle of Sex Chromosomes)
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Abstract

The Y chromosome in mammals is variable, even in closely related species. Middle East blind mole rats Nannospalax ehrenbergi demonstrate autosomal variability, which probably leads to speciation. Here, we compare the mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of mole rats. For the first time, we studied the behavior of their sex chromosomes in the meiotic prophase I using electron microscopy and immunocytochemical analysis. Unexpectedly, the sex chromosomes of the 52- and 60-chromosome forms of mole rats showed different synaptic and recombination patterns due to distinct locations of the centromeres on the Y chromosomes. The absence of recombination in the 60-chromosome form, the asymmetric synapsis, and the short-term disturbance in the synaptic co-orientation of the telomeric regions of the X and Y chromosomes were revealed as specific features of mole rat sex bivalents. We suggest several scenarios of Y chromosome alteration in connection with species differentiation in mole rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nannospalax ehrenbergi; chromosome forms; meiosis; synaptonemal complex; Y chromosome; sex bivalent; asymmetric synapsis; recombination; chromosome evolution Nannospalax ehrenbergi; chromosome forms; meiosis; synaptonemal complex; Y chromosome; sex bivalent; asymmetric synapsis; recombination; chromosome evolution
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Matveevsky, S.; Ivanitskaya, E.; Spangenberg, V.; Bakloushinskaya, I.; Kolomiets, O. Reorganization of the Y Chromosomes Enhances Divergence in Israeli Mole Rats Nannospalax ehrenbergi (Spalacidae, Rodentia): Comparative Analysis of Meiotic and Mitotic Chromosomes. Genes 2018, 9, 272.

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