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Dietary Alteration of the Gut Microbiome and Its Impact on Weight and Fat Mass: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
2
Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
3
Sinai Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2018, 9(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9030167
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)
Dietary alteration of the gut microbiome is an important target in the treatment of obesity. Animal and human studies have shown bidirectional weight modulation based on the probiotic formulation used. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass in adult human subjects. We searched Medline (PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Web of Science to identify 4721 articles, of which 41 were subjected to full-text screening, yielding 21 included studies with 33 study arms. Probiotic use was associated with significant decreases in BMI, weight and fat mass. Studies of subjects consuming prebiotics demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight, whereas synbiotics did not show an effect. Overall, when the utilization of gut microbiome-modulating dietary agents (prebiotic/probiotic/synbiotic) was compared to placebo, there were significant decreases in BMI, weight and fat mass. In summary, dietary agents for the modulation of the gut microbiome are essential tools in the treatment of obesity and can lead to significant decreases in BMI, weight and fat mass. Further studies are needed to identify the ideal dose and duration of supplementation and to assess the durability of this effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiome; probiotics; weight loss; obesity treatment gut microbiome; probiotics; weight loss; obesity treatment
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John, G.K.; Wang, L.; Nanavati, J.; Twose, C.; Singh, R.; Mullin, G. Dietary Alteration of the Gut Microbiome and Its Impact on Weight and Fat Mass: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Genes 2018, 9, 167.

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