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Microbial Regulation of Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Resistance

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Nutritional Physiology, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
2
The Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, 41345 Gothenburg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2018, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9010010
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)
Type 2 diabetes is a combined disease, resulting from a hyperglycemia and peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved in diabetes development, altering metabolic processes including glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Thus, type 2 diabetes patients show a microbial dysbiosis, with reduced butyrate-producing bacteria and elevated potential pathogens compared to metabolically healthy individuals. Furthermore, probiotics are a known tool to modulate the microbiota, having a therapeutic potential. Current literature will be discussed to elucidate the complex interaction of gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and inflammation leading to peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore, this review aims to generate a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanism of potential microbial strains, which can be used as probiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; insulin sensitivity; diet; gut molecules; microbiota; probiotics diabetes; insulin sensitivity; diet; gut molecules; microbiota; probiotics
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Crommen, S.; Simon, M.-C. Microbial Regulation of Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Resistance. Genes 2018, 9, 10.

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