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Article

Phenotyping Mediterranean Durum Wheat Landraces for Resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici in Tunisia

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Regional Field Crops Research Center of Beja (CRRGC), BP 350, Beja 9000, Tunisia
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CRP-Wheat Septoria Precision Phenotyping Platform, Tunis 1082, Tunisia
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National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia, University of Carthage, Tunis 1082, Tunisia
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CRI-Quilamapu, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuaria, Chillán 3780000, Chile
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Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage, Jarzouna, Bizerte 7021, Tunisia
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Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Zamboni 33, 40126 Bologna, Italy
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International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) km, 45 Carretera México-Veracruz El Batan, Texcoco CP56237, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anna M. Mastrangelo and Elisabetta Mazzucotelli
Genes 2022, 13(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13020355
Received: 20 December 2021 / Revised: 21 January 2022 / Accepted: 9 February 2022 / Published: 16 February 2022
Durum wheat landraces have huge potential for the identification of genetic factors valuable for improving resistance to biotic stresses. Tunisia is known as a hot spot for Septoria tritici blotch disease (STB), caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici (Z. tritici). In this context, a collection of 3166 Mediterranean durum wheat landraces were evaluated at the seedling and adult stages for STB resistance in the 2016–2017 cropping season under field conditions in Kodia (Tunisia). Unadapted/susceptible accessions were eliminated to reach the final set of 1059 accessions; this was termed the Med-collection, which comprised accessions from 13 countries and was also screened in the 2018–2019 cropping season. The Med-collection showed high frequency of resistance reactions, among which over 50% showed an immune reaction (HR) at both seedling and adult growth stages. Interestingly, 92% of HR and R accessions maintained their resistance levels across the two years, confirming the highly significant correlation found between seedling- and adult-stage reactions. Plant Height was found to have a negative significant effect on adult-stage resistance, suggesting that either this trait can influence disease severity, or that it can be due to environmental/epidemiological factors. Accessions from Italy showed the highest variability, while those from Portugal, Spain and Tunisia showed the highest levels of resistance at both growth stages, suggesting that the latter accessions may harbor novel QTLs effective for STB resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean landraces; durum wheat; Zymoseptoria tritici; phenotyping; sources of resistance; diversity; seedling; adult; agronomic traits Mediterranean landraces; durum wheat; Zymoseptoria tritici; phenotyping; sources of resistance; diversity; seedling; adult; agronomic traits
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ben M’Barek, S.; Laribi, M.; Kouki, H.; Castillo, D.; Araar, C.; Nefzaoui, M.; Ammar, K.; Saint-Pierre, C.; Yahyaoui, A.H. Phenotyping Mediterranean Durum Wheat Landraces for Resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici in Tunisia. Genes 2022, 13, 355. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13020355

AMA Style

Ben M’Barek S, Laribi M, Kouki H, Castillo D, Araar C, Nefzaoui M, Ammar K, Saint-Pierre C, Yahyaoui AH. Phenotyping Mediterranean Durum Wheat Landraces for Resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici in Tunisia. Genes. 2022; 13(2):355. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13020355

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ben M’Barek, Sarrah, Marwa Laribi, Hajer Kouki, Dalma Castillo, Chayma Araar, Meriem Nefzaoui, Karim Ammar, Carolina Saint-Pierre, and Amor Hassine Yahyaoui. 2022. "Phenotyping Mediterranean Durum Wheat Landraces for Resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici in Tunisia" Genes 13, no. 2: 355. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13020355

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