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Article

HIV Protease and Integrase Empirical Substitution Models of Evolution: Protein-Specific Models Outperform Generalist Models

by 1,2 and 1,2,3,*
1
Centro de Investigacións Biomédicas (CINBIO), University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
2
Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Immunology, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
3
Galicia Sur Health Research Institute (IIS Galicia Sur), 36310 Vigo, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Domenico Lio
Genes 2022, 13(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13010061
Received: 9 December 2021 / Revised: 22 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021 / Published: 27 December 2021
Diverse phylogenetic methods require a substitution model of evolution that should mimic, as accurately as possible, the real substitution process. At the protein level, empirical substitution models have traditionally been based on a large number of different proteins from particular taxonomic levels. However, these models assume that all of the proteins of a taxonomic level evolve under the same substitution patterns. We believe that this assumption is highly unrealistic and should be relaxed by considering protein-specific substitution models that account for protein-specific selection processes. In order to test this hypothesis, we inferred and evaluated four new empirical substitution models for the protease and integrase of HIV and other viruses. We found that these models more accurately fit, compared with any of the currently available empirical substitution models, the evolutionary process of these proteins. We conclude that evolutionary inferences from protein sequences are more accurate if they are based on protein-specific substitution models rather than taxonomic-specific (generalist) substitution models. We also present four new empirical substitution models of protein evolution that could be useful for phylogenetic inferences of viral protease and integrase. View Full-Text
Keywords: substitution model of protein evolution; protein evolution; phylogenetic reconstruction; viral protease; viral integrase; HIV substitution model of protein evolution; protein evolution; phylogenetic reconstruction; viral protease; viral integrase; HIV
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MDPI and ACS Style

Del Amparo, R.; Arenas, M. HIV Protease and Integrase Empirical Substitution Models of Evolution: Protein-Specific Models Outperform Generalist Models. Genes 2022, 13, 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13010061

AMA Style

Del Amparo R, Arenas M. HIV Protease and Integrase Empirical Substitution Models of Evolution: Protein-Specific Models Outperform Generalist Models. Genes. 2022; 13(1):61. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13010061

Chicago/Turabian Style

Del Amparo, Roberto, and Miguel Arenas. 2022. "HIV Protease and Integrase Empirical Substitution Models of Evolution: Protein-Specific Models Outperform Generalist Models" Genes 13, no. 1: 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13010061

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