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PTEN Alterations and Their Role in Cancer Management: Are We Making Headway on Precision Medicine?

1
Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
2
Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy
3
Doctoral Program in Translational Medicine, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
4
Division of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20131 Milan, Italy
5
New Drugs and Early Drug Development for Innovative Therapies Division, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy
6
Department of Public Health, University Federico II, 80138 Naples, Italy
7
Department of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont, 28100 Novara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(7), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11070719
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 27 June 2020 / Accepted: 27 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biomarkers in Solid Tumors)
Alterations in the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) occur in a substantial proportion of solid tumors. These events drive tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Given its central role as a downregulator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, PTEN is deeply involved in cell growth, proliferation, and survival. This gene is also implicated in the modulation of the DNA damage response and in tumor immune microenvironment modeling. Despite the actionability of PTEN alterations, their role as biomarkers remains controversial in clinical practice. To date, there is still a substantial lack of validated guidelines and/or recommendations for PTEN testing. Here, we provide an update on the current state of knowledge on biologic and genetic alterations of PTEN across the most frequent solid tumors, as well as on their actual and/or possible clinical applications. We focus on possible tailored schemes for cancer patients’ clinical management, including risk assessment, diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: PTEN; tumor suppressor; PI3K/Akt; cancer; solid tumors; tumor immune microenvironment; biomarker; precision medicine PTEN; tumor suppressor; PI3K/Akt; cancer; solid tumors; tumor immune microenvironment; biomarker; precision medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fusco, N.; Sajjadi, E.; Venetis, K.; Gaudioso, G.; Lopez, G.; Corti, C.; Guerini Rocco, E.; Criscitiello, C.; Malapelle, U.; Invernizzi, M. PTEN Alterations and Their Role in Cancer Management: Are We Making Headway on Precision Medicine? Genes 2020, 11, 719.

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