Temperature elevations constitute a major threat to plant performance. In recent years, much was learned about the general molecular mode of heat stress reaction of plants. The current research focuses on the integration of the knowledge into more global networks, including the reactions of cellular compartments. For instance, chloroplast function is central for plant growth and survival, and the performance of chloroplasts is tightly linked to the general status of the cell and vice versa. We examined the changes in photosynthesis, chloroplast morphology and proteomic composition posed in Arabidopsis thaliana
chloroplasts after a single or repetitive heat stress treatment over a period of two weeks. We observed that the acclimation is potent in the case of repetitive application of heat stress, while a single stress results in lasting alterations. Moreover, the physiological capacity and its adjustment are dependent on the efficiency of the protein translocation process as judged from the analysis of mutants of the two receptor units of the chloroplast translocon, TOC64, and TOC33. In response to repetitive heat stress, plants without TOC33 accumulate Hsp70 proteins and plants without TOC64 have a higher content of proteins involved in thylakoid structure determination when compared to wild-type plants.
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